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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



3 1833 00729 1005 



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https://archive.org/details/publications16camd_0 



A COMMON-PLACE BQQIU 

OF -, 

' JOHN MILTON, 

AND - , " 

LATIN ESSAY AK.D LATIN VERSES PRESUMED TO BE BY 

MILTON. 



EDITED, FROM THE ORIGINAL MSS. 

IN THE POSSESSION OF SIR FREDERICK U. GRAHAM, BART., 

BY ALFEED J. HOEWOOD, 

OF THE MIDDLE TEMPLE, BARRISTER- AT-LAW. ' 

(REVISED EDITION.) 




PRINTED FOR Till-; CAMDEN SOI tETY, 

M.lXCi'.LWVII. 



THE A T IT E N M U M 



737 



These rappinga, or echoes from an unseen world, 
as I call them, have occurred in the presence of the 
gentlemen I have referred to, and in the presence 
of other men of science, in a clear light, against 
the pane of a window, on the panel of a door, 
abreast with those present, even overhead, upon 
a wire stretched across the room, and beyond my 
reach or touch. They have taken 'place on the 
floor, while I was seated on a swing several feet off 
the ground ; they have happened while I stood 
isolated on glass tumblers, the tloor beneath vibra- 
ting as the Tappings sounded on the carpet. If the 
phenomena called spiritual rested on these rap- 
pings as their sole evidence, possibly suspicion 
might be justified ; but I ask, How does Dr. Car- 
penter account for the appearance of forni3 ? These 
appearances have been witnessed by Mr. H. P. 
Townsend, Mr. C. F. Livermore, Dr. Gray, Dr. 
Edward Bayard (all of Xew York), by Mr. Irving 
Vanwart (nephew to Washington Irving), and 
others in the United States. 

On a recent occasion, at the house of Mrs. S. C. 
Hail, Kensington, a luminous hand, descending 
from a considerable height opposite to me, seized 
a pencil and wrote a few words, then ro3e and 
gradually faded away. I ask what produced this 
phenomenon ? 

In conclusion, I repeat my request that I may 
be heard in answer to the unprovoked, unjustiti- 



nation. Soon a committee will be formed, and the 
preliminary steps taken. Yet the best proof we 
can give of our gratitude will be to promote as 
much as possible the reading of Motley's writiogs, 
so that his account of the heroic past may show us 
the way to maintain our nationality in the future, 
and the spirit of the great' American historian may 
be a living power in the small state which he I . . e I 
so well. A. C. Loffelt. 



THE PUBLIC RECORDS. 

The Thirty-eighth Annual Report of the 
Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records has just 
been issued. The records of the Palatinate of 
Durham have now been completely examined by 
the solicitors to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
and the Deputy-Keeper. The portion necessary for 
business purposes has been given up to the Com- 
missioners, and the portion relating to the Crown 
estates has been sent to the Land Revenue 
Record Office, The Calendar of the Chancery 
Records of the Palatinate has been interrupted 
by the illness and death of Mr. Burtt. 

The second volume of the Irish Series 
' Fac-similes of National MSS. ' has been prini 
at Southampton, and will be forwarded to I tablin 
as soon as the colouring of three plates has been 
completed. The Lords of the Treasury hare 
sanctioned the publication of fac-similes taken 



1713391 



THE ATHENiEUM 



737 



These rappinga, or echoes from an unseen world 
as I call tbem, have occurred in the presence of tho 
gentlemen I have referred to, and in tho presence 
of other mcu of science, in a clear light, against 
the pane of a window, on the panel of a door, 
abreast with thoso present, even overhead, upon 
a wire stretched across the room, and beyond my 
reach or touch. They have taken 'place on the 
floor, while I was seated on a swing several feet o!f 
tho ground ; they have bappt-ned whilo I stood 
isolated on glass tumblers, the tloor beneath vibra- 
ting as the rappinga sounded on the carpet. If the 
phenomena called spiritual rested on these rap- 
pings as their solo evidence, possibly suspicion 
might be justified ; but I ask, How does Dr. Car- 
penter account for the appearance of forma > These 
appearauces have been witnessed by Mr. H. P. 
Townsend, Mr. C. F. Livermore, Dr. Gray, Dr. 
Edward Dayard (all of Xew York), by Mr. Irving 
Vanwart (nephew to Washington Irving), and 
others in the United States. 

Ou a recent occasion, at the house of Mrs. S. C. 
Flail, Kensington, a luminous hand, descending 
from a considerable height opposite to me, seized 
a pencil and wrote a few words, then rose and 
gradually faded away. I ask what produced this 
phenomenon i 

In conclusion, I repeat my request that I may 
bo heard in answer to the unprovoked, unjustifi- 
able attack now made upon me. For years past 
I havo lived in strict seclusion, only allowing in- 
timate friends to visit ; and now, after the lapse 
of upwards of a quarter of a century, I am called 
upon to repel slanderous statements made against 
mo by a person I had hardly ever spoken to, knew 
nothing of, and which statements have been re- 
tracted and denied by the accusant again and 
again. Katharine Fox Jenckex. 

The statement that Mrs. Culver's deposition 
was made only six years ago is Dr. Carpenter's. 



XiiTES fltOM THE HAGUE. 

The Hajcc, Judc 3. 1S77. 
TnAT national disasters seldom come singly 
is a saying once move proved true by the 
mournful tidings of Mr. Motley's decease beiug 
received at the moment when the august lady 
who so often honoured him with her hos- 
pitality is at the point of death. The Queen 
of the Netherlands, the sincere friend and 
patroness of genius, will, in all probability, have 
ceased to live by the time you receive this letter. 
Her last davs have pa-ed in her summer residence, 
"Het Huisten Bosch," the same palace where 



and 



Mr. Motley was 
guest, and where a life-size portrait of 
historian is one of the treasures of the pi 
All the Dutch papers contain detailed 
Mr. Motley's life and works, but what 
has probably been said also by the Engl 
Perhaps it is not so generally known that 
l&Dti Mr. Motley visited Holland and sub. 
fixed his residence at the Hague, Dres 
Devlin, two volumes of a 'History of th ( 
the Dutch Republic' already evistcd 
When investigatin-.hou-cvci-.thc historic., 
in Holland and Geimanv, he saw himscl 
cnLuly ton-make his wc 
published, Mr. Bakhuy: 
great historian, whose be 
by Motley, edited a Dut. 
All Mr. Motley's writing 
descendants of the heroes 



v in Ho 

'Lej.i.:. 

Willi,. 



nation. Soon a committee will be formed, and the 
preliminary steps taken. Vet the best proof we 
can give of our gratitude will he to promote as 
much as possible the reading of Motley's writings, 
so that lna account of the heroic past may sho.v us 
the way to maintain our nationality in the future, 
and the spirit of the great American historian may 
be a living power in the small state which he loved 
so well. A. C. IiOFFELT. 



it When his bo 



ISfMotley'ttr 



THE Pl'BI.IC RECOKD3. 
The Thirty-eighth Annual Report of 
Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records lias 
been issued. The records of the Palatmat 
Durham have now been completely examine 
the solicitors to the Ecclesiastical Commissi!) 
and the Deputy- Keeper. The portion necossar 
business purposes bus been given up to the l 
missioners, and the portion relating to the Cr 
estates has been sent to the Land Rev< 
Record Office. The Calendar of the Chan 



.t Southampton, .and 
is soon as the colour 
completed. The Lo 



uul lengthened career of 
Record Ottico is indebted f 
:ioso Rolls from the clev< 



important documents relating to Dritish history, 
making a total of ninety-one volumes so trans- 
mitted. 

The Rev. Dr. Russell and Mr. Prendergast 



i'eiiz! to° 
comnictiecii 
taken undi 
end of Jam 
Of the .' 
eight vohu 



Appendix 



tho past 



;the 



repiH.itl.i 
to imie; 



these i 



'lumes. The high 
i are told, continues 
se, not only in this country but in 
uul on the* Continent. 
We are sorry to observe tb.it tho urgency of 
tiler dt-mands upon the public funds has pre- 



738 



THE ATHEH2EUM 



vented any provision being made a.s yet for the 
new block of the Record Repository which the 
Master of the Rolls recommended to be erected. 
The result is, that a considerable number of 
volumes deposited at No. 16, Rolls Yard have 
been injured by the weather, and the Master of 
the Rolls has felt it necessary to press upon the 
Lords of the Treasury the conversion of a large 
room in the Record Repository, hitherto used as 
a copying-room, into a Record -room. This has 
been sanctioned by the Treasury authorities, and 
the change has been made accordingly. 



MILTON'S COMMON-rLACE BOOK. 

Cambridge, May 29, 1S77. 

You are doubtless aware that a second edition 
of Milton's Common-Place Book has been pub- 
lished by the Camden Society. The former edition 
was very incorrectly printed, a fact to which I 
called the attention of the Director of the Society, 
Mr. Gardiner, to whom (or to the Secretary) I also 
sent a list of what I supposed to be errors in the 
first few pages. From Mr. Gardiner I received a 
courteous reply, coupled with a request that I 
would complete my revision, and communicate 
the result. This task I undertook the more will- 
ingly, as even in the printed text of passages given 
by the editor in photographic fac-simiie I bad 
detected six several errors, and I not unnaturally 



and did not know Greek, and he wrote •• 
chrisis or sintlcrisis ; and if the long limb ef ■ I 
h in sinchrisis were close against the c, the printer 
would read sinderisis or sindcrisis ; if he wrote 
sindcrisis the c was ill formed, and the word 
seemed to be sinderisis. The word is simply in- 
tended to represent a-eyK'pto"'9;-and the thought 
that the sound of the word sindcrisis or si~ v.V; 
would have immediately suggested trvyKpurvi to 
any one with even a moderate knowledge of the 
Greek language was probably the reason for 
editors thinking it needed no explanation." 

This is, no doubt, an ingenious conjecture. 
Unfortunately, however, the word arvyKpia-ts 
has' no meaning which can be made to fit the 
passage quoted. ISor is the true word far to seek. 
There is one, and only one, Greek compound of 
crvv which can serve as subject for the predicate, 
" a natural power of the soul set in the highest 
part thereof," &C;, which "uerer sinneth nor 
erreth." It is obviously the Greek word for the 
English " conscience," (rvvetBifcris t a word, more- 
over which (represented in Latin characters by 
sineidesis) contains the same number of letters 
exactly as the faulty sindercsis. It should be 
mentioned that in the preceding chapter the 
Student asks his Teacher for "some brief declara- 
tion of the nature and quality of Conscience,"' and 
the thirteenth chanter is suunosed to furnish the 



738 



T Jt E A T IT E N M U M 



nc« i :■■ i 

Waster ol 
Tlio resit 
volumes 
been inju 
the Rolls 



been sam tm.au l>y the TrtaMiry authorities, and 
the chtuige litis been made accordingly. 



MILT UN 3 1\)H.V'JN-I'L\CK TOOK. 

fanibiiil^e, >f»y CO. 1S77. 

You are doubtless aware that a second edition 
of Milton's Common-Place Book his been pub- 
lished by the Camden Society. The former edition 
was very incorrectly printed, a fact tu which I 
called the attention of the Director of the Society, 
Mr. Gardiner, to whom (or to the Secretary) I also 
sent a list of what I supposed to be errors in the 
first few pages. From Mr. Gardiner I received a 
courteous reply, coupled with a request that I 
would complete my revision, and communicate 
the result. This task I undertook the more will- 
ingly, as even in the printed text of passages given 
by the editor in photographic fac-sitnile I had 
detected six several errors, and I not unnaturally 
inferred that the other apparent errors in the 
Camden edition were not due to the writers of 
the Common-Place Book. In this supposition, 
it now appears, I was only partially right, as the 
editor his shown in bis Postscript i r Second Pre- 
face, and as appears also from the fa:-simile of the 
whole, made at the expense, of certain members of 
the Royal Society of Literature. 

I had, in the first instance, no desire that my 
name should be mentioned to the editor, a gentle- 
man with whom I was not personally acquainted. 
This, howtver, had been done by the Secretary, 
and I consequently received a letter from Mr. 
Horwood, in which ho made a handsome acknow- 
ledgment of the misprints existing in the 
volume, of which he generously undertook to 
print a second edition at his own c;st. If iho 
tone in which he speaks of me in hi* second 
Preface is different fpun that of bis private 
letters now lying before me — if, on the whole, the 
impression conveyed by the former is that the 
"Cambridge corrector" was much of a pedant and 
snmf thing of an ignoramus — that is, perhaps, a 
phenomenon which ou^ht not to have surprised nie. 
Neither have I any intention of troubling either 

which I nould rather invite th. ira'.'.o e'.i impion, my 
friend, Professor Blackie, of Edinburgh. Neither 
again am I called upon to prove that mv correction 
of c-ipfarU for c'-./i/ie-cs is not itself incorrect, 
because I omitted tne now disused double breathing 
over the double p. These are but small matters, 
and nobody would expect great accuracy in such 
things from others than professed fltlieuists. 

There is, however, one curious extract in the 
Common-Place Book which seems more worthy of 
attention. It is from a well-known book of the 
sixteenth century, called 'The Doctor and tho 
Student,' the thirteenth rtnpter of which has the 
singular heading, " What . s :tio\ri.-i'o is." " Siude- 
lesis," we are told, " is a natural power of the soul, 
set in the highest part thereof, moving it and 
stirring it to good, and abhorring evil. And 
therefore Sindeiesis never sinueth nor erreth. 
And this Sindcresis our Lord put in man to the 
intent that the order of thin-- sfn.oM lie observed." 
(Edition of 1C87, p. 4-1.) This passage is transcribed 
in the Common-Place Book, with orthographical 
variations, of course from an earlier edition. In 
the editor's Postscript, the members of the Camden 
Society are informed that "the meaning of the 
word Sinderesis also is unknown to the Cambridge 
corrector." It might have been added, " and to 
hM the world besides-," not excepting the editor, 
who has seen the necessity of emendation. 

tho first transcriber was probably a careless writer, 



and did not know Greek, and hi wr-,,ie> sin- 1 
Mil or sindcritis ; and if the long limb of -tho 
k in sincbrisis were close again-,t the c, the print/r • 
would read sindoiisis or stndcrisis ; if he wrote , 
sindcrisis the c was ill formed, and the word : 
seemed to bo finderisis. The word is simply in- j 
tended to represent trrykpitr>< ; and the thought 
that the sound of the word sindcrisis or sir.Jrisis j 
would have immediately suggested o-i'yicnirrts" to i 
any one with even a moderate knowledge of the 
Greek language was probably tho reason for i 
editors thinking it needed no explanation." 

This is, no doubt, an ingenious conjecture. ; 
Unfortunately, however, the word o-tryKpicm i 
has' no meaning which can be made to fit the 1 
passage quoted. Nor is the true word far to seek. ; 
There is one, and only one, Greek compound of j 
avv which can serve as subject for the predicate, 
" a natural power of the soul set in the highest 
part thereof," &c, which "never sinneth nor , 
erreth." It i3 obviously tho Greek word for the 
English " conscience," cruramjcris, a word, more- 
over which (represented iu Latin characters by 
sintidetis) contains the same number of letters 
exactly as the faulty sinderesis. It should be 
mentioned that in the preceding chapter the 
Student asks bis Teacher for " some brief declara- 
tion of the nature and quality of Conscience," and 
the thirteenth chapter is supposed to furnish the . 
auswer. 

That so obvious an emendation of an absurd 
term iu the midst of a grave and once much-read 
treatise should have escaped its editors, aud : 
escaped Milton, whose knowledgs of Greek 
for his age, considerable, is, on the whole, a sur- 
prising circumstance. 

But enough of this. Among the eighty or more 
suggested corrections in the margin of my copy, 
there is one of some importance, which is not 
mentioned in the list of errors committed by 
Milton or Lord Preston (p. xxiv). It occurs on 
p. <1G, where we have the words, " Foderum,jMraf«, 
ct mansionaticum tributa erant a Carolo rnugno 
Italia imposita." It did not, and does not, 
appear whit 'parata' can mean, iu this con- 
nexion. Three different kinds of tribute are in- 
tended, and it occurred to me that the true word 
might be "paravereda." My conjecture was abun- 
dantly couQ,-iied by the following parage of 
Ducange :— " Leges Caroli M., cap 153. Pervenit . 
ad aures nostras eptnd rJ qui Duces man'ionatica el ■ 
Paravereda ac.-ipiant nou solum de liberU ; 



h Via, 



Gh 



VEHEDUM. 

I might, perhaps, complain of having, contrary to 
received usage, been "shown up" in print for sup- ' 
posed (in one or at most t »vo hist euces rr xl) errors tn 
a written communication. But the opinion I ex- 
pressed iu writing to Mr. Gardiner of the manner 
in which tbe book had been edited was, I dare j 
say, "severe," and perhaps I ought not to complain 
of the retort courteous to which my frankness 
has exposal me. But it is a little too bad to 
attribute to me such "corrections" as l^aTov^cnj 



re, (p. XXV). 



The Corf 



THE DESTT.VCTiON OV 11ECOEDS. 
The fears excited among antiquaries by 
Bill for the destruction of useless records h 
been in a measure dissipated by the Minute 
Evidence given before the House of Lords, v. i 
have been printed. They show that the Schec: 
issued several months back has been ret 
sidered, for it is now intended to destroy no dc 
ment which belongs to au earlier date than 
accession of the Douse of II mover. This i 
great change from the Schedule, on the very I 
page of which were mcutioued several sets 
documents which belonged to an earlier per 
for instance, tho 'Calendars of Bails,' fi 
1 Car. I. to 13 Will. III., and forty bags 
" Record as bills against prisoners and attorni 
iu the reigu.s of the two Charleses. Of cou 
tho fixing of a date like 1714 is,, as Lord Koseb 
showed, rather arbitrary, and there is little do 



COUNCIL OF THE CAMDEN SOCIETY 

FOR THE YEAR 1875-76. 



President, 

THE RIGHT HON.' THE EARL OF VERULAM, F.R.6.S. 

WILLIAM CHAPPELL, ESQ., F S.A., Treasurer. 
WILLIAM DERRANT COOPER, ESQ., F.S.A. 
HENRY CHARLES COOTE, ESQ., F.S.A. 
JAMES GAIRDNER, ESQ. 

SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER, ESQ., Li recta K 

WILLIAM GILBERT, ESQ. 

FRANK SCOTT HAD OX, ESQ. 

WILLIAM OXENITAM HEWLETT, ESQ. 

ALFRED KINGSTON, ESQ., Secretary. 

SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A. 

FREDERIC OUVRY, ESQ. V.P. S.A. 

REV. W. SPARROW SIMPSON, DJ>. F.S.A. 

JAMES SPEEDING, ESQ. 

WILLIAM JOHN THOMS, ESQ., F.S.A. . 

J. R. D ANIEL-T YSSEN, ESQ., F.S.A. 



INTRODUCTION. 



John Milton is admitted to stand second only to Shakespeare 
in the roll of English Poets. Looking at the numerous testimonies 
(during his lifetime) to Shakespeare's existence, the number of his 
plays and poems, the many acquaintances whom his mere profession 
must necessarily have forced upon him, the friends whom his un- 
doubted genial nature must have secured, and the various business 
transactions in which he must have' engaged before being able to 
accumulate the competence on which he retired to the country, 
it seems strange that six or seven signatures are all that remain ot 
the actual writing of him who, in literature, is England's chief 
glory. But looking at these signatures, and considering the tradi- 
tions about Shakespeare's youth, it may be doubted if he was ever 
a good penman: transcripts by other persons of his rough drafts 
would serve for the Play House and the Press, and his business 
transactions were most likely effected by scriveners ; the circum- 
stances under which he is traditionally reported to have first come 
to London would perhaps prevent him from corresponding with 
his country friends; and not even a copy or a print of any letter by 
him exists. Milton, on the other hand, had a liberal education ; 
early in life he made acquaintance with men of good position in 
England and on the Continent ; he was in the service of the Stale ; 
many of his official and private letters are in print; he was not 
only a poet but also a politician and a theologian J moreover his 
handwriting was remarkably good, and up to (he 
seven or forty-eight he could see to write ; but, a few pages ot the 



vm 



INTRODUCTION. 



Cambridge MS. (parts of which are by other hands) and three or 
four letters and signatures, and perhaps a few notes in printed 
books, are all that has hitherto been known to exist of the writing 
of a man so celebrated.* 

That Milton was a diligent rea-der of books we learn from the 
testimony of his nephew E. Philips ; but, if that testimony had been 
absent, Milton's printed works would have supplied the evidence. 
His, History of England may have occupied some time, and the 
sources of it lay in comparatively few volumes, which may have 
been consulted by him seriatim as he made progress with the work. 
But some of his other treatises have reference to Authors of widely 
different characters and concerning widely different subjects, and 
the readiness with which his oen could eno-ao-e in controversy would 
seem to show that he must have accumulated stores on which he 
could draw for illustrations, authorities, and proofs. A long list of 
Authors read or consulted by Milton may be made from his printed 
works, although he was not profuse in direct citations, and in many 
instances it is easier to see that he drew from his store of acquired 
knowledge than to ascertain the exact sources of it; while the 
wealth of allusion in the great poems composed after he became 
blind seems impossible except on the supposition of adventitious aid 
previously prepared. 

What might be well conjectured is now proved by the volume 
found among Sir F. Graham's papers during recent researches made 
for the Historical Manuscripts Commission ; and that volume supplies 
proof that it was not the only one of the kind compiled by Milton. 
It contains references to Titles which are not in that volume, and 

• In the autumn of 187~> Mr. Payne Collier announced that a copy of Cooper*a 
Thesaurus (fol. 1573) iu his possession contained numerous DOfeM by Milton; and 
by Mi. Collier's courtesy I have had the pleasure of leeing it. M\ visit was too 
short to justify the expression of mere than my opinion, that the specimen! which 
I saw ditl'er from what I had previously known m M ikon's writing. 



INTRODUCTION. 



ix 



never were in it. Moreover there is a marginal reference in p. 197 
to an Index Theologicas, forming a separate volume, or at least a 
section of another volume. a The Commonplace Book now printed 
shows, mostly in Milton's own handwriting, a list of upwards of 
eighty authors read by him — English, French, Italian, Latin, and 
Greek. The entries are not mere extracts from these Authors, they 
are mostly Instances and Conclusions deduced from, or fortified 
by references to, them. The language is in many cases Milton's; 
in English, French, Italian, or Latin. 

In one or two cases where the handwriting was by an Amanuensis 
the entry seems to have been made while Milton dictated the 
sentence: the scribe has had just time to write or begin words, 
when (the sentence being incomplete) Milton directed them to be 
cancelled, and then substituted another phrase. An instance of this 
treatment is at p. 77. In a letter by Milton to Peter Heimbach 
written in 1G66, he apologises for the bad writing, saying that the 
boy employed to write was quite ignorant of Latin, and that he 
(Milton) was obliged to dictate, not the words, but one by one the 
letters of which they were composed. Such a scribe seems to have 
made the entry at p. 198, where a second attempt at a proper spelling 
was as vain as the first. 

The leaves of the MS. measure LI J inches in height by nearly 
9 inches in breadth. Originally there must have been 126 lea . , 
the pagination going from 1 to 250. The leaf of table (the 126th) 
is not paged. The lower halves of the first seven leaves have 
been cut off; the leaves forming pp. 33-37, 83-98, 207 and 208, 
225-228, and 231-234 have been cut out. Slight fragments of 
the inner portions of 83-98 remain, and these have been preserved 
in the rebindino- of the volume, because the fragment of p. ^7 
shows remains of writing (not by Milton's hand) placed trans- 

* At J>, 221 is a reference to another or the other Index. Hut, Ptipa is the 
Mlbject, it seems that the Index Thcohujleux WU intended. 



X 



INTRODUCTION. 



versely and cut through. As the table at the end is perfect, and 
as all the titles there are found in the MS. as it now exists, it 
may be concluded that none of the text of the volume has been 
removed. The cover was rough brown sheep-skin without any 
trace of lettering, and neither the cover nor its contents contained 
any name of the original or any later possessors 

Attention may be drawn to a few of the entries in the volume. 
At page 5 Milton notices (from Beda) Casdmon and his poetry. 
Francis Junius, the possessor of the MS. (now in the Bodleian 
Library) of Coedmon's metrical Paraphrase, was one of Milton's 
friends, and may have shown the MS., or may have communicated 
the contents to him. Some have supposed that Milton took some 
hints from this poem for the framework of Paradise Lost. — At 
p. 109 is a remark showing Milton's displeasure at the marriage of 
Charles h with one of the Roman Catholic belief. — At page 179 
he brands the Law French, then (and for nearly a century later) 
used in Law Reports, as " gibberish." — At page 180 his remark 
on the tendency of the English to follow French fashions would 
seem to lead to the inference that the sentence was written soon 
after the marriage of Charles I. There is evidently an allusion to 
Charles I. at p. 246, where remonstrants are by the Prince treated 
as rebels. At page 181 of the MS. (page 24, L 11, from foot of the 
print) is a line of heroic verse. 

It will be noticed that the numerous original chroniclers and 
writers of English history vouched by Milton in his History of 
Britain do not seem to have been read by him while the Common- 
place Book was in process of compilation. 1 have examined the 
prose, works of Milton with a view to find how far this Commonplace 
Book was made serviceable in his various compositions; for facility 

8 The leaves are much damp-stained. The volume has been rebound bj Mr. 
Zaeansdorf, and ho has strengthened and admirably treated the Leave* without in 
the least affecting the various tints of the inks ttted by the WritGA. 



INTRODUCTION, 



xi 



of reference, use has been made of the edition^ in one volume, by 
Kobert Fletcher, 8vo. London, 1858, and notes will direct the 
reader to those passages in which entries in the Commonplace Book 
have been clearly utilised. 11 These are but few; longer research 
will probably produce more. The other Commonplace Book 3 which, 
as before noticed, Milton seems to have compiled, would doubtless 
(if present) have caused more references. It is noticeable that no 
use seems to have been made of many entries on subjects to which 
Milton specially addressed himself, and where citations of, or refer- 
ences to, authors of repute would have added force, or at least 
authority, to his own arguments. Such an absence of citation b 
is not however to be wondered at when the temper of Milton's 
mind is considered ; for it was characterised by aversion from 
authority. We know, from what he has written of himself, the 
ardour and extent of his studies, his consciousness of ability, and 
his determination to leave somewhat which the world would not 
willingly let die ; so the written thoughts of other authors were 
used by him as mental food to be digested and assimilated, and at 
fit times to be reproduced from his brain in better or varied forms. 

Milton seems to have had an exalted idea of himself and his doings. 
At the age of forty he thought it not unbecoming, in a controversial 
treatise (The Second Defence of the People of England), to dilate 
with complacency on the graces of his person ; and a few years 
before, hi the Apology for Smectymnuus, he filled several pages 
with an account (and very interesting it is) of his great diligence 
in study and the pursuit of virtue ; so it is not surprising that at 
the more youthful age of thirty he gave a grandiloquent account 

* These passages arc at pp. 07-69 of the present volume, and arc referred W bf 
means of the Roman numerals (in brackets] in the text of the volume. 

b There is in the second hook of The lieason. of Church (iovrrn went MTftd 
against Prclaty a passage in scorn of "men whose teaming and belief lie in the 
marginal stuffings." 



Xll 



INTRODUCTION. 



to a friend of the extent of his recent studies. In a letter to Carlo 
Deodati dated 23rd of September, 1G37, he says, a I was long 
employed in unravelling the obscure history of the Italians under 
the Lombards, the Franks, and Germans, to the time when they 
received their liberty from Kodolphus King of Germany." Any one 
would suppose that Milton had been wading through all or most 
of the writers who treated of that history during the seven centuries 
indicated. The Commonplace Book however shows that we need 
not conclude more than that he had been reading, in a single 
volume, the History of Italy by Sigonius* from a.d. 570 to a.d. 
1286, the exact space of time referred to by Milton. 

The handwriting of Milton has been the subject of a monograph 
by the late Mr. Leigh Sotheby, whose volume contains a full 
account of the Milton MSS. at Cambridge, and of the few others 
then known. Sir F. Graham's volume contains a great mass of 
writing by the Poet's hand, though, it must be confessed, it is not 
of the like interest with the Cambridge volume, because it does not 
contain any purely original compositions. The entries in the 
Commonplace Book are by five or six hands. The greater number 
are by Milton at various periods of his life, mostly before his going 
into Italy. Two (in p. 1 1)7) are by Daniel Skinner. Some entries 
are by one of the hands that copied parts of the Treatise Pe DoctrinS 
Christiana, now in the Public Record OOiee, ami edited by Mr. 
(afterwards Bishop) Sumner in 1825. Some arc by the hand which 
copied the Sonnet No. 17 in the Cambridge MS.; one (at least) is 
by the hand that made the transcript of the First Book of Paradise 
Lost in the possession of Mr. Baker ol Bay (ord bury $ and some are, 
I feel satisfied, by Sir 11. Graham o( Nctberby, Viscount Preston. 

a Carol i Sigonli Historian! m <U« regno Italia Rbb, xx. qui Itbri historian nhntinu 
dlxx. usque ml MCCLXXxvi, iroo n -num tateriil el Utartai Italia radtmpta Ml 

continent. Franrofurt i MTDXCI. (Tills ffM the edition OacU bj Milton). 



INTRODUCTION. 



xin 



The autotypes which accompany the first edition, and which should 
be transferred to the present volume, give specimens of all but two 
of the different handwritings contained in Sir F. Graham's MS. 
Milton's writing generally speaks for itself. Mr. Sotheby's volume, 
and the fac-similes in the printed edition of the Treatise De Doctrina 
Christiana, and in the English translation of it, and in Professor 
Masson's Life of Milton, will enable anyone to compare all the 
specimens except those of the entries' by Lord Preston's hand. The 
small waking by Milton is of earlier date than the large. 

Milton's writing has some distinguishing marks. He is not 
careful, after a full stop, to begin the following sentence with a 
capital letter; a he is indifferent to the correct spelling of names of 
persons; he always writes pr<^lacie, precept, pretence ; b he always 
writes tliire or thir for the possessive pronoun their. c 
In the print this peculiarity is observed. 

b Wilton was not alone in this practice. It was rather common in the seventeenth 
century. Lord Anglesey, who was an acquaintance of Milton, spelled in the same way- 

c I have seen the MS. poem found by Mr. Morlcy at the end of Milton's Poems 
(8vo. 1645) : the use of the form their is alone, I think, conclusive against its being 
by Milton's hand; and there are objections in the writing, particularly the form of 
the small li. The bad grammar and the full stuffing of concetti are strong argu- 
ments against it being composed by Milton. The use of the same form their in the 
poem signed J. M. written on a blank page of Rosse's Mel Heliconium is, I think, 
fatal to the claim of those verses to be by Milton's band; and the small e there most 
frequently used is not that used by Milton. In the initials J. >.I. appended to thai 
poetn the J. is not crossed, a variation from all the undoubted signatures >>f Milton, 
and the M. (as Mr. Sotheby admits) is at variance, with that used by Milton. 

It is remarkable that both poems introduce the Bee, and the alchemical fiction of 
a flower being reproducible from its calcined ashes. 

Among the MbS. of Sir Reginald Graham, Bart is a volume of poetry containing 
an epitaph on Madam Elizabeth Swcttenham in 14 lines, where the similarity of the 
12th and 13th lines to the 3rd and 4th of the dispute 1 poem is noticeable. 

Begins, If chcarfull, chastas ttXfi the SB >W8. 

Ends, No soul can be more blest than this, 

Whose sacred reliques in this nrn 
Are kept until the Soul's return, 
To re-unite itself to its known mate, 
And raise these reliquas to an happier st o to. 

The same Volume of poetry contains the following, * JoHl Mazavini Cardiualii 
CAM I). SOC. c 



XIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



The handwritings of which the three plates in this volume do 

not contain specimens are free and flowing, and the letters of each 

word are, generally, connected. Some of the entries from Italian 

works are by those hands, e. g. those from Berni at p. 7 1 , and from 

Boiardo at pp. 77 and 187: and of a smaller kind those from 

Machiavelli's Discorsi at pp. 148, 185, 198, 242, 243, 245, and 

246, which latter, though in some respects they resemble some of 

Milton's writing, I think cannot be said certainly to be by him. 

The doubly looped f, the full loop to 1, b, and h, are forms not 

affected by Milton; and the capital M in two of these latter entries 

is so formed that the last limb represents a capital C not looped. 

Epitaphinm. authore Job. Milton." The writer then gives the last three lines of 
the long sarcastic epitaph on Cardinal Mazarin which may be found at length in 
Charles Gildon's Miscellany Poems, 8vo. Lopd. 1C92, and in vol. i. part 2 of the 
State Poems, in both of which collections it is attributed to Milton. These three 
lines he expands into ten lines of English verse. Then he copies the Latin epigram 
on Pope Boniface the Eighth (also to be found in Gildon's Miscellany Poems and 
the State Poems) and gives a poetical version of it. The same volume of MS. 
poetry contains "To a friend upon reading Mr. Charles Gildon's Miscellany Poems " 
(eighteen lines). 

Begins, I have, Sir, by a transient look 

Trayers'd this miscellaneous book: 

Pardon the ink which I have spilt on 

The two quaint epitaphs by Milton. (Pp. 20, "n.) 

The reference to pp. 29 and 33 are evidently to the pages of Gildon's volume \ 
the epitaph on Mazarin being at p. 21), and the epigram on Boniface at p. 33. So 
that Gildon, who was a conteraporar) of Milton, attributed these two Latin pro- 
ductions to him. 

Charles Gildon was a friend of Charles Blount, whose Miscellaneous Workl were 
published collectively in lG'Jo in one volume, in uhich is a long preface by Gildon 
to the Oracles of Reason, One of Hb.unf's productions N "A just vindication of 
Learning and the liberty of the Press," u trad of not quite tuonty-threc pages; at 
p. 4 of which he says, "I cannot but heroin agree with Mr. Milton and say that 
(unless it be effected with great Caution) you had almost as goo,l a* kill a man 
as kill a book." At p. 6 he Bays, "I shall here demonstrate the aoieasonnnta eni 
of any such licence <>r Imprimatur v."' Ilassagcs equal to seven pages ol this 
short tract arc, with some trifling alterations, afterwards renreyesi from ICilton'l 
Arevpapitle*, ertthoml the slightest acknowledgtweal «»f the source, They are 
worked up into Blount's tract so as to lend a rnulov t > suppose that they ore 
original. 



INTRODUCTION'- 



XV 



The entry in p. 185 would seem to have been the last thing placed 
on that page : it is important, as containing the dictum that against 
an evil prince the sword is the only remedy. Whether by Milton's 
hand or not, the entry was made in his lifetime. The head word 
Divitice at p. 148, which page contains nothing but a note from 
Machiavelli, seems to be by the copier of that part of the treatise 
De Doctrina Christiana of which a specimen is given in plate xx. 
No. 2 of Mr. Sotheby's work. 

Such of the entries in the Commonplace Book as are not by 
Milton's hand are in the present volume printed in Italic letters. 
In a few of the margins will be found references, by means of 
numbers in brackets, to similar handwritings copied in Mr. 
Sotheby's volume: the first number indicates- the plate; the second 
number indicates the specimen in that plate. A table of the 
authors cited is added, and will be found at pp. 64-GG of the 
present volume. 

In the middle of the Commonplace Book was found a short 
letter by Henry Lawes to Milton. We know that Lawes set to 
music some of Milton's poetry, and that Milton addressed a Sonnet 
to him. This letter shows that he had iriiluence enough to get the 
licence necessary to enable his friend to leave England for the 
Continent. The letter is without date, bat the wording of it pi 
it to have been written before 1643. The writer says that ho sends 
to Milton a letter from the Lord Warden of the Cinque P 
and that if Milton intended to write himself he couhl not have a 
safer convoy for both than from Suflblk House. Now, in 16! s 
Theophilus Howard Earl of Suflblk was Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports; and his town-house at Charing Cross was known as 
Suffolk House. In 1G42 that house was purchased by Algernon 
Percy Karl of Northumberland, and tin- same nOUSQ wa< rwafdl 
called Northumberland House. As we hue no intimation from 



XVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



any source of an intention by Milton to make a second journey 
abroad, it may be safely concluded that the letter was written on 
the occasion of Milton's preparation for his continental excursion 
in 1638. a 

The following is a full copy of the letter: 

Sir, I have sent you with this a letter from my Lord Warden of the 
Cinque Ports under his hand and seale, which wilbe a sufficient warrant 
to justify your goinge out of the King's Dominions ; if you intend to 
wryte yourselfe you cannot have a safer convoy for both tban & 
Suffolk House, but that I leave to your owne consideration and reinaine 
your 

faithfull friend and servant, 
Henry Lav 

(Address) any waies Aprooved. 

M r John Milton 

haste these. 

This letter is much disfigured, it having seemingly been used as 
blotting paper in the course of making entries in the volume. 

On the back of the letter are the following lines by Milton's 
hand : 

Fixe heere yec overdaled sphears 
That wing the restless foote of time. 

The Latin prolusion or address in favour of early rising, and the 
verses which follow it, and which embody the same ideas as those 

* I am enabled to add an interesting item to onr scanty knowledge of Milton'* 
doings abroad. In the Travellers' Book of the Rnglish Col lego at Room it i-» 
recorded that on the 30th of October, 1638, Milton and his servant, and N. Gary, 
brother of Lord Falkland, Dr. Holding of Lancaster, and N. Forteacoe din< ! at tl 
college. 

The entry, which was scut to sir T. Dnffoa Elardj by Mr. Stevenson (• 
examining the Vatican MSS. for onr Government), is u> follows: Octobris die SO. 
Pransi sunt in Collegio no.stro lUastrissimaa I>. X. Cur) frater baron i» dr RuJn 'and. 

Doctor Holdingns, Lancastrensls, D, N. Fortescoto, n Dominai MiltOAMi cum 

f amnio, nobiles Angli, el oxcopti sunt hiui.V 



INTRODUCTION. 



XVII 



contained in the prose composition, are on a single leaf of foolscap 
paper much damaged by damp and its left margin destroyed, hi 
the left-hand margin on a level with the first line is the name 
Milton. "When I first discovered the paper, and for some days 
afterwards, the letters es were visible immediately preceding the 
word Milton; but that portion of the paper soon crumbled into 
dust. That the marginal words were Johannes Milton may be 
safely conceded. The leaf was found loose in the same box with 
the Commonplace Book. The ideas expressed in these two short 
compositions are not recondite, but they show the same delight 
with the beauties of Nature which Milton afterwards expressed in 
choicer language. I conclude that these are juvenile efforts of 
Milton which he did not think worthy of publication when in 
1074 he gave to the world the Prolusiones Oratorio;. In support 
of the opinion that John Milton the poet was the composer of 
the contents of this single leaf, the following passages from his 
acknowledged writings may be cited. 

In the Prolusion Utrum Dies an Nox prcestantior sit ? are the 
following passages : 

Etcerte primo quam omnium animantium sfirpi grata sit ct desiderabilis 
[Dies], quid opere est vobis exponcre ? cum vcl ipsa volucres nequeanl 
sunm celare gaudium, quin egressaj nidulis, obi primum diluculavit. aul 
in verticibus arborum conccntu suavissimo dcliniant omnia, aul sursmu 
librantes se, et quam possunt prope solem rolitent, redennti gratulatura) 
luci. Ac primus omnium adyentantem Solem triumphal msonraus gallu*, 
et quasi pra:co quivis, moncre vidctur homines, ut excusso somuo 1 
(leant, atquc obviam eflundant se novam salutatum Auroram: tripudianl 
in agris capelhe, totumque genus quadrupedau gestil et exuttat Irctil « 

Caltha qnoque et Rosa no Tiiliil addaut ooounuoi gaudio, 

apcrientea sinum, odores suos Soli tantum BerfatOB profuse spirant, qui bun 

noctem dedignantur impertiri cateriqae floras inchnaia 

paulum ct rore languidula erigentes capita quasi prtebent n Boli 



XVI 11 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ipsaqnoqnc Tellus in adventum Solis cultiori se indnit vestitu, nubesque 
juxta variis chlamydatre coloribus, pompa solemni, longoque ordine 
videntur ancillari surgenti Deo. 

In TJA llegro. 

To hear the lark begin his flight 

While the cock with lively din 
Scatters the rear of darkness thin, 
And to the stack or the barn-door 
Stoutly struts his dames before. 
***** 
Right against the eastern gate 
Where the great sun begins his state 
Robed in flames and amber light 
The clouds in thousand liveries dight. a 

I should have liked to have added to this volume a fac-simile of 
the whole or portion of the leaf containing the Latin prolusion 
and verses, so that those well acquainted with Milton's writing 
might judge if they were by the poet's hand. b The writing is not 
as a whole like any that has been heretofore known as Milton's. 
It is a stiff legal hand, with a shade of timidity. The capital 
letters (except J) are wholly different from those known to b 
Milton, and the small letters c (except where the Greek e occurs) 
h and r arc such as he never used so far as hitherto known. But 
it must be recollected that Milton's father was a scrivener, and the 
poet most likely in early years used to write in the fashion which 
he saw exercised at home. The writing.- now in question may bare] 
been executed when he was at St. Paul's School, 01 in his early 
college days; and the necessity of sending np I neatly written copy 

" Sec also Paradise Lost, book iv, Line* 623, 641-645; book v. lines 1-6, 20-23. 
b As this could not bo doue/Iharo had a few copies taken, and hate Jepotitad 
one (and also one of th«- letter by Lawos) iii the British tfoeci i, 



INTRODUCTION. 



xix 



could not prevent the Greek e, which Milton afterwards, for a long 
period, adopted, from appearing now and then. Even here appears 
occasionally the disconnexion of letters which was afterwards one 
of the characteristics of Milton's writing : and in the latter lines of 
the verses a strong likeness to some of Milton's undoubted writing 
is visible. I must, however, express my doubt whether the writing 
is by a juvenile hand. 

Plow or when the Commonplace Book came amongst the Netherby 
MSS. is not known. The late Sir James Graham concluded that 
it contained some writing by Lord PrestoD. Whether Lord Preston 
had any acquaintance with Milton or any of his family is uncertain: 
from his letters it is clear that he was a collector of books and of 
MSS. a and curious about literary matters. It is said that Milton 
gave away or disposed of his library before his death : but it is not 
likely that he would have parted with his Commonplace Books. 
His daughters however are said to have made free with his books; 
so that this may have been one which they disposed of, and which 
Lord Preston secured; or again he may have procured it directly or 
indirectly from Daniel Skinner, who after Milton's death carried off 
into Holland some of Milton's books. b This last conjecture seems 
probable. It is known that Skinner transcribed portions of the 
Treatise De Doctrind Christiana, and trie first and third entries at 
p. 197 of the Commonplace Book (see Autotype) are I believe by 
Skinner's hand. He was with Lord Preston at Westminster School; 
and when the latter was Envoy at Paris in 1682 Skinner wrote two 

■ A copy of the sale catalogue of Lord Preston's large library (sold at London in 
1600) is at Longleat. Among the hooks is a copy of Bodin'a Treat: ' non- 

wealth translated into English (fol. Lend. 1606). All the extracts from this trans- 
lation are in Lord Preston's writing. The Single note by Milton from Bodia, p. 189, 
seems to he from a Latin edition. 

b Sec an unsigned letter among the Mss. of the H&rquia of Bath, (Apptndli to 
Fourth Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, p. 231, col, 1.) 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



letters in French a to Kim asking for employment under him, and 
mentioning his own early schooldays and his proficiency in the 
French language. For one of these letters he used a seal impres- 
sions of which are found on several letters to Lord Preston by u spy 
employed by him at Paris ; so that it is probable that Skinner's 
services -were made use of: b and the volume now printed may have 
been an offering to obtain or retain the favour of his old school- 

o 

fellow. The question how it came to its present resting-place is 
of secondary interest. The authenticity of the volume is unques- 
tionable. 

Sir Frederick Graham, thinking it unwise to leave such a record 
of some of the studies of a great man to the .charge of a single 
manuscript, very kindly approved my suggestion to have the con- 
tents printed, and most liberally entrusted the volume to my bands 
for that purpose. The publication of it in the ordinary way would 
not (I was informed by a publisher) have been remunerative: hence 
the means now adopted fur its perpetuation. The thanks of many 
besides the Members will be given to the President and Council of 
the Camden Society for printing such an interesting document, and 
to Sir F. Graham for making it known and allowing its publication. 

A. J. 11. 

* Among Sir Frederick Graham's MSS. 

b A short unsigned letter of advice is, I think, by Skinner's hand. 



POSTSCRIPT. 



Reasons should be given for this second edition of Milton's Com- 
monplace Book. Some time after the issue by the Camden Society 
of the first edition, the Secretary received two letters from one of 
the members (a gentleman of great eminence at Cambridge) who 
complained of numerous errors in the volume, and was particularly 
severe in his remarks on the Greek passages (twenty-five lines, at 
most, of the volume), and he also remarked on mistakes in the Latin. 
On closely comparing the printed volume with the autotype copy 
I found that many Greek words were not accented in accord- 
ance with the MS., but that Milton himself was in fault in some 
instances, and Lord Preston in others; dint for two extraordinary 
mis-spellings (p. 6, 1. 2 from foot, and p. 31, 1. 8) Milton is n 
sible; as also for a third (KcofiaaOat for revijiaaOai) if his hand wrote 
the Prolusion at p. 81 ; and also for seven instances of Latin words, 
either badly spelt or mis-spelt: these arc in addition to mis-spellings 
of proper names, of which several instances occur. 1 he errors by 
Lord Preston's or other's hands are denoted in the list of errors by 
(P.) in the case of Greek, and by italics in the case of Latin. 

My intention, when I offered to edit the volume, was to give a 
printed copy of a manuscript, part of the value whereol con! Isted in 
the peculiarities and even carelessness in Milton's spelling an. 
position. These errors (if errors they oun bo called) ought to have 
been the only things left untouched when the proof-sheets were 
corrected. But I regret to say that numerous typographical errors 
escaped me. These I can trace to my own careless handwriting, 
which many times must have misled the reader and COinpc itor at 

C AMD. SOC. (I 



XXII 



POSTSCRIPT. 



press. a All carelessly written vowels are liable to be mistaken, and 
the letter i runs a double risk when left without its "tittel; " r is 
very liable to be taken as part of an adjoining letter; n and u 
are often mistaken. Moreover, the proof-sheets were corrected by 
candle-light, without assistance. All persons who have printed - 
know that when the author or editor himself corrects the proof- 
sheets he is very apt to imagine that he sees in the print what 
from perfect acquaintance with his text he knows to be in the copy ; 
and how difficult it is for even a corrector himself to be correct. 
* The dot over an i Is often of great value; as, from the knowledge 
of the certain existence of that letter in a succession of strokes, 
many a word in a badly written manuscript is often at once ascer- 
tained : but the Greek accents, except in the few instances where 
change of position changes the meaning of the word, seem not 
of much use except for the purpose of pedantic display. 5 Milton 
evidently cared little about them: to this it may perhaps be retorted 
that his skill in Greek was not groat; and certainly it might be 
doubted if a man who felt the sense of the passages cited in pp. 6 
and 31 could have written ocfrtXifiov and tovto. 

As to Milton's and Lord Preston's mistakes, it must be remem- 
bered that they wrote by way of memoranda for themselves, and 
not for others; and, even when quoting, Milton was not always 
careful; a singular instance of this is at p. 1, 1. 6 of text. 

■ My transcript was long ago destroyed, so that I cannot say what positive errors 
it contained. A collection of all which occur in tic print enables me to say that 
they were very few. In the Greek two word* were run together, one word 
divided into two, and a termination was misi 

b The late Thomas de Quincey, whose knowledge of Greek wma Qol small, cared 
for nothing but the spirit us and the sub«-n;>t i<<ta. I hu>e a t.u «> . 
where there is not a single accent. The follow Lllg paftagt from a sixteenth-century 

letter will he familiar to many. "Ego hone vidi dt fbbll Colonic quando 

fnistiS corrector et debuisti.s corrigere giaeum, tune ah>cidi>th omm s t in lies .,ni 
fuerunt supra Uteris, et dixistis, ' Quid decent ill.e stultitue? " 



POSTSCRIPT. 



xxifi 



Among the corrections sent from Cambridge is one which I have 
not thought right to adopt; in p. 1, 1. 4 of text, the corrector said 
that "Dei" should be "Deo;" but Milton wrote " Dei," and in 
this lie only followed Tertullian whom lie was citing; (1 have 
referred to the passage;) the substitution of "Deo" for "Dei" 
would materially alter the sense of the passage. 

The spelling Theodoret for Theodorit (Theodoritus) I have not 
thought right to adopt, because in Milton's time, and as late as 
Cave (see his Historia Literaria, ed. 1740}, that Father's name was 
spelt Theodoritus. Doubtless Theodoretus is the correct form, but 
the other is sanctioned by some ancient MSS. its well as by print. 

About the fii] 7Tore, p. 8, 1. 3 from foot, I have some doubt. J:i 
the MS. Milton wrote /j-rjirore as one word; and then inserted a 
long line nearly perpendicular, which has the effect of deleting the 
first limb of the ir ; whether he meant to divide the word into two 
must remain in doubt; a literal transcript would give rare : 
but the printed edition of 1689 (I could not refer to the earlier 
edition, cited by Milton, by the same editor) has 7rore. 

The meaning of the word " Sinderisis," 3 also (p. 11), is unknown 
to the Cambridge corrector : but Lord Preston (although he was 
not consistent in spelling the word) is not to blame; for he only 
followed the printed editions of the " Doctor and Student " 
the earliest printed edition, temp. Hen. VIII. down to the latest 
edition by Muchall, both of which 1 have; and no editor attempts 
to explain the word. But the explanation is simple : the i''..-t 
transcriber w<ts probably a careless writer, and did not know Gr< CK ; 
and he wrote Bwchrisis or sindc risis; and, if the Long limb ol the n 
in sinchrisis were close against the c s the printer would read si 

• Notwithstanding my efforts at accuracy I find thai the head lino of this inbjcct 
haa " Sindoresis " instead of " Sinderisisj " and the fj>ir tins in iWiftWi p. .10, i$ 
m>t near enough to the first letter. 



xxiv 



POSTSCRIPT. 



or sinderisis: if he wrote sindcrisis the c was ill-formed, and the word 
seemed to be sinderisis. The word is simply intended to represent 
crxr/Kpiai^; and the thought that the sound of the word "sindirisis" 
or (i sindtnsis" would have immediately suggested avytcptaris to any- 
one with even a moderate knowledge of the Greek language, was 
probably the reason for editors thinking that it needed no explanation. 

The following variations should be stated. In the Greek quotations 
I have printed <?t and ov and ai instead of their contracted forms, and 
and t instead of the other forms of those letters. In the Latin 1 have 
expanded every contraction indicated by a line above or a line below. 

The word " perplacida 99 (p. G, 1. 21) is denounced by the C 
bridge corrector as non-existent and as having no meaning. But 
Milton wrote that word, and wrote it determinately. A reference 
to the autotype will show that he wrote " perpl,'' and then erased 
those letters, but on second thought cjetermined that 11 perpla< 
should be the word, and accordingly wrote it. With the same b I 
Selden framed the word 84 Pontifieuli " (p. 14, 1. 3, from foot), I 
temptuous diminutive of <; Pontifices." Here my careless writing 
caused the words "Pontifieuli se " to be printed " Pontificali si," 
and thus the passage was unintelligible to the Cambridge corrector. 



Mistakes in the original MS. Those in 
which (P) is attached arc hy Lord 
Preston; the others arc by Milton. 

p. 1,1. 14 from foot, ut ratio virtuti 

constare pos^t 
p. 3, 1. 11, ignovam 

4, 1, Sidny. 

5, 5, probande (P) 



Corrections. Tki €J9 i tetti MtNttWti 
Hons of the <})-( ck {t set jd that in 
p. 20) were sent from Cambridge. 

ut ratio virtutie constare 

posset R 
ignavam 
Sidney. 
probanda 



* Such is the reading of the only editions which I pOMMt, fll.i ful. Rom. 1474, ami 
8vo. Oxf. 1639. 



POSTSCRIPT. 



XXV 



p. 5, 1. 21, f3a\\ofj,€6 


>a 


ftaWop,e6a 


6, 


6 from foot, ayiov, 


delete the comma 


6, 


5 




Svcrdycoyov 


Svcraycoyop 


6, 


5 




Sea 


ota 


6, 


4 


»1 




t \ a 

eirippeiTes a 


6, 


2 


5J 


\eicp 


Aetco 


6, 


2 


5) 




OXpCAljAOV 


6, last line, vrrohe^cope6a h 


VTrooeE;(L)p,€ua 


7, 1. 


7 from foot, 


laboris 


r Jaborum c 


7, 


2 


53 


VljTOpiK?] (P) 


k7]TOpifC7) 


v, 


2 


}j 


aVTlOrTpOcfx)? (P) 


i ' ± 

avriarpocpo^ 


7, 


2 


J» 


rf; SiaAefCTi/cr} (P) 


tt? b take kt iter, 


7, 


2 


3) 


eoTtz; (P) 




7, 


2 from foot, 


d(f)opL(7fiepov (P) 


a<j)(i)pL(7{l€V0V 


8, 


9 
"i 


aurrj? (P) 




8, 


2, 


TriOava (P) 


wiBdva 


8, 


3 from foot, 




irXrjV 


8, last line, yfrevBcx; 




15, 1. 


15, bellicossimus 


in* * * . ~ 

bellicosissimus 


17, 


1, €V$OKLa 




evooteta 


17, 


3, 


Patriacha 


Patriarchs 


18, 


3, 


Rauglilei 

ZD 




iCaiegD 


18, 


2 from foot, 


cajus 


concubitus (?) 


19, 


6 


JJ 


ai'n)cnv 




21, 


8 


»> 


AJlainc 


A 1 

Alan 


26, 


8 




e^aTOw'jay 


€faTOl/»jo*7/ 


27, 


11 


« 


an 


and 


28, 




cclvto) 




eai/Ta> 


28, 


13, 


Idolatria 




Idololatria 


28, 


15, exolvit 




cxsolvit 



» This correction is, I think, vm>ogj Bfcould it nol be lin^fM -ic ? 
b The existence in the MS. of the accent over the Brat t DM| he Coitfttttd. 
c A fuc-Simileof this inscription is in the plate opposite p 130 of l>. M. Manni's 
Isloria del Decomerone, &c. 4to. Firente, 1742. 
CAMD. SOC. £ 



XXVI 



POSTSCRIPT. 



31, 1, 


2, Sigerbertus 


Sigcbertus 


31, 


8, TOVTO 


TOVT(p 


33, 


3, parare 


parere 


oo, 


10 from foot, che 


que 


35, 


16, qui 


omit this word 


36, 


6, statuant (P) 


statuunt 


44, 


8, Polyorcetcs (P) 


Poliorcetes 


49, 


8, Empston and Dudly j 
12, Emston and Dudly j 


Empson and Dudley 


49, 


50, 


9, 7€2'e<rea)? 




50, 


9 from foot, judicio 


judicio) 


53, 


6, Arrianus 


Arianus 


54, 


5, Multi se aliis 


multi aliis 


54, 


9, As c ams 


Ascham's 


54, 


13, transacts 


transacta2 


61, 


8 from foot, Kco^iaaOat 


KOifxaadai 



JOHN MILTON S 



COMMONPLACE BOOK. 



Index Etiiicus 1 

Malum morale 4 

in malo morali potest multum esse admistum boni idquc arte 
singulari, nemo venenum temperat felle, ct helleboro, sed conditis 
pulmentis et bene saporatis ita diabolus letale quod confieit, rebus 
dei gratissimis imbiiit etc. Tertull: de spectaeulis p. 102 edit. 
Eigalt: 

Cur permittit deus malum ? lit ratio virtuii constarc possit. virtus 
enim malo arguitur, illustratur, cxercctur. qucmadmodum disserit 
Laciantius 1. 5. c. 7. ut haberet ratio ct prudentia in quo sc excr« 
ceret, eli<7endo bona, furriendo mala, lactan. de ira dei, c. 13. 
quamvis ct hsec non satisfaciunt. 

De viro bono. 5 

Cur viri boni, et alioquin cgregii. incrtis lit plurimum ct pusilli 
animi speciem prae se ferunt, primoque inniitu nullius esse pretil 
videntur. respondet Laciantius ut haberent, xindc sununain virtutem 
patientiam possent quotidie cxcrccrc. 1. (>. c. IS. 

vir bonus aliqua, rationc ctiam angclos exeellere vidctur, co quod 
ille infirmo ct mortali corporc involutus cupiditatibua semper col- 
luctans vitam tamen crelcstium similem IgpXC aspirat ttomil, in 
Gen. 12. propc Pinem. 

CAMD. SOC. P i 



2 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



Summa viro bono liabita reverentia a populo etiam furente. Perche 
si vegga che la ve[ra~\ virtu £ sicura in ogni estremo pericolo, anchora 
ircCl furore de nemici in qital vespro SicUiano sanguinoso^ di tanta 
multitudine uccisa, per universal consenso di tutti Siciliane fa salvato 
un cavagliero di nation provenzale assai nobile, chiamato Gvglielmo 
JPorcelletto, per la gran virtu e bonia sua nota a tutti i populi di 
quella Isola. Angelo di Costanzo Hist: di Napoli I. 2, p. 38. 

6 De Virtute 

Quicquid speciosum est non statim virtus est diccnda, Sic 
Philippus Marire rcgina; raaritus Elizabetham tollere non sustinuit, 
non tarn quod sanctus quod clemens at vulgo creditur, quod mitis 
ingenii, scd quod prsevideret tunc fore ut Maria Seotica ( I 
desponsata si forte in regnum succederet, imperium Britannicum 
- Gallico adjunctura esset ut Camden. Elizab. fol. 13. 

12 Avaritia vide dc bonis Ecclesiasticis 

Clericorum avaritiam aperte notat Dantes inferno. Cant: 7. 

Mango impcradore de' Tartari per ammacstramento del re d'Er- 
minia si battezzo et mando Aloon suo fratello con grandissirao 
essercito per conquistare la terra santa. sconfissc il calipli de 
* Baldac, et presolo et in prcgione missolo in una tone ovc egli 
haveva raunato molto tesoro, ct per avaritia non haven voluto sol I 
cavallieri a sua difensione, lo affamd dicendo che convenia vivesa 
del suo tesoro, e di quello mangiasse sanza altra vivanda havere. 
Gian Villani. 1. 6. c. 61. 

Martino quarto, vide de bonis Eceles. 

13 Quia 

Tertullianus eleganter vocat homicidam gularn, et Buppliciu 
inediai puniendam ait, ctiamsi dcua nulla jejuni a pmcepisset, 
quia in earn primus parens lapsus dc jejunii*. p. r 

Rigak: 

Q 



OP JOHN MILTON. 



3 



the Englishmen said to have learnt thire gourmandizing of 
Ilardiknute the Danish K. Iloliush. in his life, noted also of 
immoderat feasting by Jovius. hist. L 11. 180 [L] 

the Indians in Summatra great gluttons renew thire stomack by 
.chewing an hearb call'd Arecca betula. Purchas torn. 1. 132. 

De Libidine - 14 

Quid potest esse sanctum iis qui aatatem imbccillam, et praesidio natSepavria 
indigentem libidini suse depopulandam fcedandamque prostraverint. se ^ 
Lactant. 1. 6. c. 23. 

in fabulis nostris 'notatur Sodomitici peccati rex Mempricius 

gentem e stupris, illicitoque conjugio natam ignovam et pemi- gtaprmn. 
ciosam patriae futuram ait Bonifacius in ilia egrcgia ad Ethelbaldum 
merciorum regem epist. Malmesbur. L 1. 

Duarum virginum Belgicarum egregie stuprum illatum ulcis- 
centium exernpla vide apud Thuan. hist. 1. 66. p. 267. 268. 

Castitas 15 

Ebba monacha nasum sibi et labia truncavit, idemque creteris 
sororibus suasit ut hoc modo elusi Dani nihil in carum pitdicitiam 
tcntarent. Sto. ex flor. Hist. p. 78. 

Mors spontanea. 16 

pocnam eorum apud inferos scitissime* describit Dantes in to mo. 
cant: 13. 

whether lawfull, disputed with exquisite reasoning. Sir Philip 
Sid. Arcad. I. 4. 419 &c. 

Ebrietas . 17 

lung Edgars law against drimkennesse. Stow. p. 8,3. which 
Englishmen are said to have learn't of the Panes in his days. 
Flolinshed. 1. 6. o. 23. 



4 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



of Healths. Sir Phil. Siclny. That barbarous opinion beeing generally among 
them to think with vice to cloe honour, and with activity in beast- 
lines to shew abundance of love made most of them seek to shew 
the depth of thir affection, in the depth of thir draught. Arcad. 
1.2. p. 201. 

a inebriandi consuctudo, etiam siccam ebrietatem ammo inducit. 
quod de Alberto Brandeburgico notat Thuanus his verbis, plane 
de eo approbation est, ebrietatem violata scmel et exasperate mentis 
sanitate, necessarid erudelitatern habere comitem: nam cum frequenti 
ebrietate exire de potestate sua longo usu consuesset, fiebat ut Losaniae 
consuetudine durata, immanitas etiam sine vino in illo valerct. 
Hist. 1. 12. 358. 

18 Do Sqrtitudine 

fortitudo hominis non in corporc sed in ratione, quae firmissimum 
- hoininis presidium et numimeutum est, consistit. quod hinc liquet 
hominem hoc solo rationis adminicuio etiam in robustissima quaique 
animalia dominari, et nocere posse, si libet. Lactant. dc opif. 
clei. c. 3. 

Obsidionem magdeburgae vide apud Sleidan. 1. 20. &c. fidei et 
fortituclinis christians exemplum reperies. 

the cause of valour a good conscience, for an evil conscience, as 
an English author noteth well, will otherwise knaw at the roots of 
valour like a worm and undermine all resolutions. Ward* militar. 
Sect. 7. 

v is Dc Duellis 

not certain in deciding the truth, as appears by the combat 
fought between 2 Scots before the L, Grey of W il ton in the market- 
place of Haddington, wherin Hamilton that was almost if not 
cleerly known to be innocent was vanquish 't audi slain, ami W 

a The in seems to have Keen written after the remainder *'t' tlie word. Il is «■ 
line, mul tlte tttltotypo (which was taken after the MS. Volume had been bomd) bftl 
not reproduced it. 



OF JOHN MILTON. . 5 

the offendor remained victor and was rewarded by the Ld. Grcv. 
Uolirish. p. 993. 

Egregium et fbrtissimum Cai Marii responsum ad Teutonehi pro- 
vocantem lege Frontin. 1. 4. c. 7. 

ljuellorum antiquitas pjrebande ficlei causa, primus occurrit boni- 
facius sub valeniiniano tertio militice dux* qui aetlum proditionts in 
sc compertiun singulari ccrtamine fideisue probande gratia provocavit } 
commissoque placidice pcrmissu p\_r]elio sitperavit. Sigon. de inij ■ 
occid. I. 12 p. 203. an. dom. 432. 

De movie . 20 

Mortem esse jinem certtmnarum. Thcophrastus. 
Quietem infeUcium Ccesar. et neuter eorum immortalitatem 
animcd agnovit. Bodin: c. 5. I 2. [Lord Preston's writing.] 

De scientia literarum 53 

An liceat profanis Seriptoribus operam dare, affirmat Socn>t: 
1. 3. c. 16. cum aliis rationibus solidis usus, turn Pauli apost i 
exemplo, et antiquissimornm Ecclesiie uoctorum. vide et Eust '•■ 
1. 7. c. 7. de Dionysio Alexandrino sensit etiam impiua Julianus 
qnibus armis labefactari suorum causa posset cum Christianis inter- 
dixit poetical rhetorical et philosophic lectionem tow ottcetot? yap 
inquit, irrepol^ Kara ryv Trapoiplav {3aX\ope0a. TkeodoriL 11 
1. 3. c. 7. 

The noble K. Alfred a great lover of learning. Malmesbur* Si . 
p. 80. his excellent stature [statute?] for training up all the english 
till 15 years old in learning see Speed, in his Life. 

Two Englishmen Alcuin and John by appointment of V 

the great founded the two chcifest and aneicntrst universities ol 
Europe, Paris and Pavia. Girard Hist. France, 1. -1. p. 218. 219, 

That princes ought to be learned especially in histories < NNtttM 
well shew, memoires, 1. 2. 0. 6. 

Linguarum peritiam etiam in EcclesiA pcrutilem esse acnscruul 



6' A COMMONPLACE BOOK 

Waldenscs, ut fideles aut pulsi patria, aut a suis ecclesiis missi, ed 
aptiores ad docendum cssent. Gilles hist. Vaud. c. 2. p. 16. [ii.] 
Ordines Hollandiu3 in medio etiam bellorum sestu, tanqua'm pacatis 
rebus no literarum cultural, et libcrorum institutionem rebus adhuc 
vel maxime dubiis ncgligere viderentur, Acaderniam Lugduni L>at:t~ 
vorum instituerunt, amplis ex sacro patrimonio vectigalibus attri- 
butes. Thuan. hist, 1. GO. p. 81. 

55 De Curiositate 

Qua3stiones profundas de deo quas humana ratio difHcilius inter- 
pretetur, aut, asscquatur, aut non cogitandas, aut silentio prcmcndas 
ne in vulgus edantur, deturque hincmaterics schismatum in Ecclesia, 
sapientissime monet Constantimis in epist: ad Alexandrian, ct 
Arium. Euseb: in ejus vita. 1. 2. c. 77. et apud Socrat: 1. 1. 

Sophistas noctuis assimilat Basil, qui in rebus minutis ct obscuris 
oculati sunt aut ita crcdi volunt, in rebus solidis, et eonspicua? 
veritatis, scienticequc salutaris caecutiunt, ilia eniiu QOCte aeutum 
cernit, interdiu caligat. Hexam. Homil. 8. 107. 

Thcologorum Parisiensium stolidas vclitationcs dcpingit Sleidanu* 
1. 3. p. 3G. 

57 De Pociica 

de pocta Anglo subito divinitus facto mira } ct perplacida historiola 
narratur apud Bedam. Hist. 1. 4. c. 24. 

Rex nobilissimus Alfredua saxonica poeseos pcritissimua Sto, 
p. 80. 

Pocticcn ad virtutis studium accendum in animis homim 
cdoctam Basileius monet. eVeioV; yap € lSe to jrvtOfia to dyiov, 
Bvadycoyov irpbs dperrjv to yipoq t&p dvuponrouf, A-oi ha to wpfc 
i)hoin]V iTTippeTres TOV opOou fiiov Kaiapc\ovvTa<; jt zroici ; to €K 
rrjs /*eXc<>S/a$ Teprrvbv tow Bay pa an* ry vaTt V u £w Ira toi irpocnjia, 
koX tt)$ aicofjq to iic r&v "koywv o<j>c\tfiw XarftirorrftK 

virohe^MfieOa, etc. Homil, in Psal. I. prooem. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



7 



Xumidian poets Leo Afer in Purchas. torn. 2. 759. et Leo A/er 
edit. Lugdun. 1. 2. 212. etc. and purchas ex Leone. L 2. torn. 2. 795. 

Epitaphia. * 58 

77«e Inquisitors of Venice worthily condemned the Booker of Peter 
Aretine, called the Scourge of Princes, for the filthynesse of them, and 
it is reported that they alsoe commanded his horrible Epitaph to bee 
blotted out which was set in this church of St. Luke in these words ; 
Qui giace V A.rethi Poeta Tusco, 
chi disse maV oV ogniun \ fuora che d.i Bio, 
Scusandosi, dicendo, io no V conosco. 
Here lyes Aretine a poet of Tuscany, 
who spake ill of all but God. 
Excusing himselfe saying I know him not. 
Notteithsianding Ids vitious life and writings hee found one pane- 
gyrist; for Ariosto speakes of him thus: 
JScco il flagello de'i Principi, 
11 Diviii Pietro Arethio. 
Pyn[e]s Morison's Itinerary, edit: Aug: loud: part i. /. 2. Wf>: L 
pag: 82. [iii.] 

Upon the sepulchre of John Boccacio, one of the refiners of the 
Italian tongue, at Castel Certahh in Italy, these verses are written^ 
his statua without a beard carved in marble being set upo I 1 
Tombe. 

Hae sub mole jacent cineres ac ossa Johannis; 
^fens sedet ante Deum mervu ornata labotis; 
Mortalis vitcr gehitor Boccacius xlli: 
Pairia Certaldo, studium fit it alma Pocsis. 
Idem Moryson, pag. 1G4. [This page is by Lord Preston.] 



Rhetoric**. W 

H Vrj-opiKt) cotlv avilarpo^o^ rrj BiaXeKTiKtj etc : Ar: Rhct: Art: 
1. 1". c. 1°. Ovk tarlv Tn-iK yivOVS dtyopio fA&POV »; PlfTOfM v., *XXd 



8 



A COMMONPLACE P.OOK 



KaOdirep rj AioXcktlk/]. teal oti y^pr)(TL^o^. koX otl ov to irelaac Zfr/ov 
aim}?, aWa to ISelv ia irifiava. Cap: eodem. 

Rhetorica est facultas in quaque re videndi quod contingit esse 
idoneum ad faciendam /idem. cap. 2°. [This page is by Lord Preston.] 

61 De Musica 

J n Ecclesia alternis canere primus instituisse dicitur Ignatius 
Antiochensium cpiscopus post Petrum tertius. Socrat: 1. 6. c. 8. 
[Small writing.] 

Organa primum in Gallia, Les Ambassadeurs de Constantin 
emperour Grec apporterent a roy Pepin des Orgues, qu'on n'avoit 
pas encore veues en France. Girard. Hist. France. 1. 3. p. 138. 

Guido Aretinus rationem cantandi hodiernam adinvenit, per 
Gamma uth re mi etc. circa annum 1000. Girard. Hist. France. 
1. 6. p. 337. 

Consultatio 

quatenns credenclum et obsequendum sit prudentum consiliis 
sapienter docct Comina3us, rationesquc reddit gravissimas; crrare 
etiam sffipissime prudentes, vel affectibus ducti, vel ut amiulis partes 
tueantur contrarias, vel aliquando, ut fit si forte corporis, vel animi 
habitu sint minus sano. Comin. 1. 2. p. 94. edit. Gall. Paris. 

70 Ignavia 

Ignavorum poena apud inferos qui nihil in hac vita bene, vel 
' quod insigniter sit malum egcrint describitur a Dante Florentino 
perpctua scilicet inquietudinc et quodam o^stro incassum agitantur. 
Lante Inferno, cant: 3. [Small writing.] 

71 De mendacio 

nus licet semper veritatcm diccrc sulct vir bonus, inquit Ckm€M x -\^r it 
fi)j rrore eV depaircla^ fiipei KaOdircp tarpon irpo? NWoGirras bci 
ccoTrjpia to)v KapvovTuv y\rcvo erai »j yfrivBo? ip€t. etc, Strom: L 7. 
p. 730.' 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



9 



Salutis publieae causa, hinc illud Torquoii ubi Sophroniam intro- 
dueit surrepti Idoli noxam in sc trausferentem quamvis id v<j:um 
non esset, ut tamen populum Christianum ab internccionc liberaret. 
Magnanima menzogna, or quando e il vero si bello cbe si possa a tc 
preporre ? il GofTredo, Cant. 2. stanz. 22. 

Similiter Bernia lletruscus, poeta nobills in Orlando inamorcU 
I. 2. canto. 20. stanz; 2. 

La verita e hella neper tenia 

Si debbe mat taccr, ne per vergogna. 

Quando la for z a e Vimportanzia prema 

Tal volta amen che dirla non bisogna, 

Per jit 't ion non cresce il ver nc seenm, 

Ise sempre occulta e dichiamar menzogna* 

Anzi valente molte volte viene 

Et sacio detto quel che occulta il tiene. 

T/ambe due queste parti di prudentia 

11 figliuol di Laerte esempio danne etc. 

De furto, et latrocinio r * 
furta et latroclnia ita compescuit Edwin us Northumbrian rex ut 

into cuilibet liceret ubivis per universum ejus regnum iter facci 

Malmesbur. et Sto. [iv.] 

Alfred also is said to have hung chains of gold and braceu tfl m 

the erosse high ways to see what thee fe durst touch 'cm, so KYerOIJf 

was justice administerd against them. Sto. out of Asserius. 
Edgar also famous for this kind of justice. Stow, [v.] 
and before them all Dunwallo moltuutius as Holinikfd* 
Athelstanes law to attach such as stole above the vah m of lr* 

at above the age of 12 years Sj>ccd. 

William the conquerour provided well against thecving. SfO»« 

in Ids 20 year. llolinsh. p. 15. 

Do fide servanda 73 
Anlafv's Bouldier pneserveth by rare exampb his faith botb to bil 

former captaine and Athehtan. MM his life, [vi ] 
CAMD. SOC, 



10 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



a just 
woman. 



Justitia com- 
mutativa. 



(16,4) 



74 Be Justitia 

Edgar a great overseer of Justice amoungst his judges, [vii.] 
and Edward the I. who punish *t almost the whole magistracie at 
once for thire unjustice. HolinsL 2S4. 285. and p. 312. 

against bribing Ed. 3. provided. Holinsh. 3G9. Sir Hen. de 
Bath a famous briber and corrupter of Justice to maintain his f 
pride beeing of high descent. Speed, p. 541. 

but farre more renouned was the lady of Sir Stephen Sere | 
who by threatningto forsake her husband unlesse he would discharge 
his lieu tenantship of Ireland justly, reclaimed him, and made him a 
worthy man. Campian hist. Ireland p. 93. 

K. Hen. 5 spared not a great favorite Bcrtrand de Charmont a 
gascoin who by conveying away one of the murderers of the duke 
of Burgon had forfeited his own life. Spee<J. p. G5G. although 
overswayd by a folish decree of heraldry in acquitting Bail 
the sam fact. 657. 

remarkable is the saying of a worthy knight S r Thomas R xsksby. 
who beeing ordnarily scrv'd in wodd'n cups was wont to say. 1 had 
rather drink out of wood and pay gold and silver then drink out of 
gold and make wodd'n payment. Campion. Hist. Ireland p. 91. 

75 Dc Adulatione 

Bead K. Kanuts act by the sea side and answer to flatter* rs in 
his life, [viii.] 

76 De reprehensionc 

Ncc acerbitate, nec scommatis abstinuit Luthcrus intcrdum ctiam 
parum verecundis, Steidan, 1. 16. p. 261, fix.] 

77 De Malediceutia. 

Belli sunt imprimis versiculi ttft finbut Potto Italits Boitarfhu in 



Orlando Inamorato, lib: 2* cantum 



monetquc prudente 
maledicat, 



it" inripi'. 
■ntil )ir OHM fnnrrr 



Clti'ju 



0¥ JOHN MILTON. 



11 



Chi ha troppo al parlar la lingua sciolta, 

Com'' ho gia detto, spesso se ne pente 
' Che colui di chi parla, sta toil volta 

Dietro ad un useio, et ogni cosa sente, 

E, quando non v\e altri, Iddio Vascolta, 

Iddio cite lien la parte oV ogni gente 

E serba la vendetta delV otfeso 

Quando v'e men pensato, e men atteso 

Sempre si vuol favellar con rispctto 
D' ogniuno, e degli absenii sqpra tutto 

Ne voler per non perdere un bel detto 

Guadagnar qualche scherzo, etfatto brutto, 

Cite molte volte Vhuom si truova stretto, 

Ami riman coin un pesce all 'asciutto, 

Quando egli e sopragiunto al improciso, 

E si dipjigne in mille fogge il visa. 

JJe volaniafe. 78 
Tolle voluntatem et erit omnis actus indijferens. Bracton 3 de Leg* 
et Consuetud. Aug: 1. 1. cap: 4". [By Lord Preston.] 

S'mdcrcsls. 79 

Sinderisis is a natural power of the soulr, set in the highest pari 
thereof, moving and stimng it to good, and abhorring ceil. And 
therefore Sind[ep'isis never sinns nor erres. And this Sindirievt the 
Lord put in man to the intent that the order of things should bee 
observed. J) r and Student: cap. 13: p: 24. J dialogue the T ; . 

Ratio. 80 

Reason is the power of the soul that discemcth betwixt good and 
evil, and t betwLvt good and better, comparing the other. The which 
alsoe shewtth virtues* fly efh vices, lovetJi good, /> r and Stndentj 
cap: 14: Dial: 1 st , page 2-1. 

• As the Latin has " virtutrs digit n the English version ihould hare a clraaietfc 
virtues." 



12 A COMMONPLACE BOOK 

81 Conscientia. 

Vid: D T and Student, Cap. 15: pan: 25. Dial: l sf . % 

82 JEquitas. 



Equity is a right wisenesse that considereth all the particular 
circumstances of the Deed, the which allsoe is tempered with the 
siceetnesse of mercy. D r and Student, cap: 16, paa: 27. Dial: 1 st . 
[pp. 78, 79, 80, 81 and 82, are by Lord Preston.] 



101 Index Oecoxomicus. 

105 De Victu 

Quod inter dixerant Apostoli ecclesiis esu sanguinis, ut notum est 
ex actis apostol: id esse a Christianis usque ad Aurelii et Veri 
tempora observatum tradit Enseb: in ilia Biblidis qua?stione de mar- 
tyribus Gallieis. hist: 1. 5. c. 1. gncc: [Small writing.] 

106 Do Cultu 

mulieres ne sc nudanto ultra quam necesse est. vide Clemens 
Alex: Pjedagog. 1. 2. c. 2. p. 158. et Cyprian, lib. de disciplina, et 
habitu virginum. [Small writing.] 

109 Matrimonium vide do Divortio 

Apostoli matrimonium contraxisse probantur EusA: Id-:: cccl: 
1. 3. c. 30. gra:c: apud eundem uxores et liberoa cpiscoporum 1 
natos passim viderc est. ut 1. 6. e. 42, de Chfleremone et ejus uxoie. 
et filium Demetriani Antiochensis eptscopi Domnum scdera patris 
adeptum. Emeb: 1. 7. c. 30. grsec: vide, et Socrattm 1. 1. c 11. de 
Paplmutio qui corripit quosdam oncra nimia graYia imponcntei 

Ecclesice. Sed Socrates ubi mcntionem Tacit matrimonii clericorum 



de esu san- 
guinis. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



13 



ait intelligi debere de iis qui uxorera duxerant, antequam munus 
Ecclcsiasticum suscepissent, seu ita ipse scripserit, seu quis ppstea, 
quod facile fieri potuit, ista de suo interposuerit. vide et eundern. 
1. 5. c. 22. graec: p. 698. [small writing], et Cedren: p. 236 [ix. a]. 

Pet rum et Paulum matrimonium contraxisse disertis verbis afrirmat 
Ignatius et quid de raatrimonio sentiat a deelarat epist: ad Philadelph: 
p. 94. 95. et Clemens Alexand: Strom: 3. pag. 448. et Felix qui 
presbyterium subministrabat sub Decimo cum Victoria conjuge ejus 
propter fidem extorris legitur factus apuci Cyprian: epist: 19. 

and the Preists of England befoie the conquest, thire great 
impugner John Cremensis beeing detected himselfe of whordom. Holrash. 
Stow. Hen. I. y. 26. forbidden to marry by Anselme, much con- 
demn'd therfor by an old writer Hen Huntington. Molinsh. p. 30 
lien. I. se also the absurd articles of the other synod, p. 34. See 
also Mat, Paris against forbidding marriage to the clergie. Speed. 
p. 432. and 448. vide ConciL Trident. L 8 ad flnem ubi Theologi 
German i adjunctis Ferdinandi imperatorls et ducis Bavar. Uteris 
matrimonium clericorum defendunt. 

Polygamiam veterum Juda^orum propter varia mysteria sub ea 
latentia baud inconcessam fuisse ait Justin: mart: Tryph: p. 364. 
et371. 

Gregorius nyssenus uxorem habere testatur torn. 3. de virginitate. 
116. 

Cur Papists matrimonia clero prohibent vide rationcs astutas 
ConciL Trident. 1. 5. p. 446. et 662 1. 7. 

Spuridion Episcopus Cyprius vir sanctitatis fama celebratissimus 
sub Constantino quamvis conjugem, et liberos haberet dicitur tamen 
ov irapa tovto to, Beta %e(pcov. So:o))i. I. 1. c. 11. 

Mariage allow'd to preists in the councel of Viennc in franco 
more than 900 yeares after Christ, the Pope's legates booing then 
present. Girard. Histi France. 1. 5. p. 300. 

vide responsum Elizabeths cum dftoe Andino llUptias propter 
rcligionis difFcrentiam amolicntis Cain p. 197. 

• The a is just legible, but is blotted either bj accident or design, 



14 



• 

A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



with one of a different religion dangerous, for hence Gregory 
the 15th is so bold as to count Prince Charles a favourer of fclie 
Catholick cause,, as he terms it, and of the Roman praelacie 3 because 
he sought in marriage a daughter of Spain. .Da Chesne Hist. _ 
d'Angleterre. p. 1163. see also p. 1166. ct 1167. et 1168. 

the marriage with France also was no lesse dangerous if the 
conditions obtained by the Marquesse* D'Efliat and Richelieu be 
true, as amount the rest that the children should be bred in the 

o 

^papists religion till 13 years old. Da Chesne. Hist. Angle, p. 
1180. &c. et p. 1182, 1184. 

Digamiam We sanxit Valentinianus. Socrat: 1. 4. c. 30. ffrsec 

DO *-< 

[Small writing.] 

".Germa&i antiqui non una tantum uxore usi. Ariovisti enini 
duai fuerunt uxores Ccesar. comment. 1. I. ad fin cm prope do 
bell, gallic, et Childericus Francorum rex. Bernard Giro.nl. Hist. 
Franc. 1. 1. p. 27. 

Conjugal affection rare in the wife of Ed. I. in Palestine. 

Quartam uxorem licet mortuis priori bus ducere apud Graecoa non 
licet, hinc Leonem philosophum imperatorem communione pepulit 
Nicolaus patriarch. Jus Grxco-l»om. p. 103. 

the discommoditie of manage. Sec Chaucer marchants tale, ai I 
wife of Baths prologue. 

Mariage with Papists dangerous to England appearea by tl ! 
oration of Fontidonius in the 'name Di luna the Spanish embas- 
sador to the Councel of Trent, wherin he professes chc il suo si 
marito Maria d'lnghilterra non ad altro fine che per ridur quell" 
Jsola alia religionc. Concil. Trident, L 8. 691. 

Ministris EcclesiflB nullum jus fuisse apud Christian '.- Mltiquis- 

simos ut interessent vel contractibus vel nuptiis celebranais osfc 

Vkletitul. Seldenus Uxor Hob. I. 2. c. 28, fcdto, ct 2\\ nempe in ilia* I 

do bonis Pan-e et Pontifn-uli se importune satis immiscuere emolumentum 
Ecclesrasticis. " ' ..... 

inde sibi ac doininatum captantcs partim ritus ethnlOOS ut in cietcns 

fere, suscipientes, et vanb quodam judicio semulant & 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



15 



Concubinatus 110 

the cause of houshold disquiet. as it turn'd both wife and 
children against our Hen 2. Holinsh. p. 87. 

Concubinam imam permitti in Ecclesia. antiqua Christiana multis 
patrum testimoniis testatur Seldemis de jure nat. et gent. 1. 5. c. 7. 
p. 573. 

Multos etiam clericos viros minime malos martyrium etiam passes, 
fceminas in domibus habuisse fatetur Cypriano adscriptus liber de 
singularitate clericorum. sect. 38. 

4 concubinas habuit Carolus magnus. Girard Hist. Franc. 1. 4. 
p. 229. 

concubinam uxori inducere, negotio cum pastoribus connmmicato 
baud se indignum existimavit Philippus ille Hassia; princcps pro- 
testantium dux Thuan. Hist. 1. 41. p. 447. 

Carolus Martellus princcps bellicossimus atque optimus concubina: ]STothi <li<:i. 
fiiius, quo natus Pepinus Caroli magni pater. Hist. Franc. 

Ferdinandus Alphonsi Neapolitani regis optimi ex concubinfi 
fiiius regno successit. 

Les bastards estoient advouez, ct partagez egalcment avee les in France 
legitimes, jusques au temps d'Hues capet en France. Girard J 1 
France. 1. G. p. 333. 

lis ne font point grande difference au pays (Tltalie d'un enfant - a lulj. 
bastard a un legitime. Fliilip. de Comities, 1. 7. memoixes. c. 
p. 515. 

De liberis educandis vide* dc scientia literarum. ill 

natura cujusquc iniprim is inspicienda mv torquond.i BuioKUm 
deum enim non omnes ad singula destinat, sed ad suum quemquo 
opus proprium undo Banks e se '1 mondo la giu ponesao uumto ft] 
fondameato chc natura poue &C vide Paradiso cant: 8. [Small 
writing.] 

* This tklo is not in tlio volutin- . 



16 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



hinc credibile est quod de Athaiuisio traditur puerum seiL inter 
pueros episcopum egisse puerosque in maris littorc baptizasse. 
Socrat. Hist. Eccles. 1. 1. c. 11. ■ 

not to labour, as most men doe to make them bold and pert 
while they are young which ripens tliem too soon, and true boldnes 
and spirit is not bred but of vertuoiis causes which are wrought in 
them by sober discipline to this purpose Chaucer speaking of feasts, 
and revells and daunccs such things maken children for to be too 
soon ripe and bold as men may see, which is full, perillous &c. 
doctor of Phis. tale. fol. 58. 

112 33e Divortio vide 116. 

in judicia translatam esse divortii eausam videtur ex quo Canonici 
lucrum inde reportare authoritatemque uberrimam posse didiccrunt. 
Hist. Concil. Trident. 07. p. [x.] 

Questiones innumene de divortiis inccrta solutionc tractantur 
Concil. Trident. 1. 8. p. 729. <£e. et 737. &c. 

ritus publici celebrandi matrimonii multis post apostolos sceulis 

introducti sunt Concil. Trid. 1. 8. 77*2. 

vide de bonis Causae matrimonialcs ad civilcm magistratum pcrtinebant prius- 
cecle^iji^Hci^ »•',•« -\ • - • 

~ * " quam ecclesiastici per socoruiam pnncipum carum judicia invi 
Concil Trident. 1. 8. 772. a 

Carolus Magnus uxoivm Theodoram repudiat, non rcddita ejus 
rei cuiquam rationo. Girard, Hist. Franc. I. 3. p. 146. ct Hilde- 
gardam dux it. 

Post quinquennalem mariti absentiam, si incertum fuerit ubl sit. 
uxori conceditur cum alio nuptias facere. Manuelis Patriarchs 
constantinop: sententia. Jus GreccfrRoman: p. 239. vixit Mitem 
hie patriarcha circa an. 1216. 

Keligionis causa divortium tier! posse Btatuit Matthaeufl Bfomchus, 
give orthodoxus Lta vult non tantum si ab altcro descratur, in illo 

• The iir-t lour p:u ii^rup'n are in small writing. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



17 



enim negotio, non simplex evhoKta infidelis ad cohabitationem 
requiritur, sed utriusque avvevZoKla secundum Pauli sententiam; 
ait etiam ab Theodoto Patriacha ita statutum vide lib. matrimonial, 
a pud Jus Grceco Roman, p. 507. [xi.] 

Guntarius archiepiscopus Coloniensis et Tergaudus Trevirensis 
Lotliarium Lotbaringise ducem repudiate Tirberga Yastradam indu- 
centem approbaverunt. TJiuan. 1. 78. 655. 

Pro divortio vide Boclin. repub. 1. I.e. 3. 

Renatus Lotaringias dux repudiata ob deformitatem et sterilitatem 
uxore Margareta vivente ea Pbilippam supcrinduxit; nec tamen ejus 
ex Philippa filius hasreditate dejectus. Thuan, hist. \ 2-1. p. 734. 

Wilhelmus Arausionensis [Belgian et protestantium defensor] 
abdicata. a se ob mores uxore Anna Mauritii Saxonis 7 viri filia, 
Carlotam Borboniam Monpenserii filiam duxit. Thnan. hist. 1. 60. 
p. 72. 

Joannes Basilii- films Moschorum dux, uxore repudiata, quod, * »«> " P 
quotics vult,* illi moribus patrris licet, novam ducit. Thuan. hist. C ui\ 
L 11, p. 471. 

Propter impedimentum naturale Vincentius Mantuae princeps 
Alcxandri Farnesii filiam repudiat alia supcrinducta. Thuan, 1. 80. 
p. 703. 

Henricus 4tus Galliae rex Margaritam uxorem ob mores quamvie 
cognationis obtentu repudiavit, multisque exemplis id Bibi quoque 
licere demonstrate quod alii ante se reges varias ob causas feeissent 
Thuan. hist. L 123, p. 885. 

Dc Scrvis 113 

Quodnam fuerit jus dominorum in servos, vide Ju3i • • insU- 
tut. 1. 1. tit. 8. §. 1. 

dc manumissione Justinian, institut. 1. 1. tit. 5. et G. 

scrvis refueium a duris dominia esl datum le re cnrilij cum hac 
pulcra rationc, quod rcipub. expedtt nc sua re qUM male Qtatur. 
Justinian, institut. L« 1. tit. 8. §. 1. 
• CAM!). SOC. D* 



18 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



De Matrimonio 

To forbid d Polygamy to all hath more obstinat rigor in it then 
wisdom. Hence Sir Walter RaitgUigh well observes that by such 
rigor the kingdom of Congo was unhappily diverted from I 
christian religion, which it willingly at first cmbrac'd, but after 
with great fury rejected, because plurality of wives was denyYi 
them; 1 know not saith he, how necessarily, but more .contentious! v 
then seasonably. &c. Hist, of the world, 1. 2. c. 4. sect. 1G. 

Sebastianus Castalio Allobrox Bemardinum Ochinum secutus, 
cujus dialogos latinos fecit, polygamlam adstruere videtur. Thuan. 
Hist, h 35. ad finem. p. 271. 

Britanni etiam post fidem recepfam conjuges hahuere complures, 
quo nomine a Gildd reprehenduntur quam plurimaa conju^vs 
habentes, sed scortas ecc. vid. epist. Gild, et ad finem ; unius 
uxoris virura, quod ita apud nos eontcmnitur ecc. ac si apostolus 
dixisset virum uxorum. 

De clandestinis matrimoniis pro irritis habendis vide Thuan. hist: 
1. 35. p. 268. 2G9. idem in Germania sancitum. hinc Ferdinai 
Austrii proles ex Velseni clam patrc Cajsare suscepta pro non 
legitima est habita. Thuan. 1. 71. p. 446. 
Incestnl. Philippus Hispaniae rex sororis f.liam dueit. Thuan. hist. 1. 7 1 . 

p. 442. etc. et suns (?) 

et Ferdinandus Ferdinandi Cajsaris filius. idem. hist. 1. 71. p. 44G. 

115 ' Adult*, riu m 

Protestmtes, Aureliani, cum ea urhs penes cos erat, adulteihun 
mortc puniebant: quam rem aulici adeo graviter tulere, ul 
sc ideo a protestantibus alienos luturos professi pint, T/iuan: 1. 35. 
initio libri. 

H6 Divortium 

Curpermitti ratio est quia ut mcdiei, et omnes fere fatettlur, CUJU8 sine imOI* 
debet. cst f r i,riciiis, insuavis, infeecundu-, n«».\ius, ferinu?, Ih-dus. N »,-' 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



19 



Geneanthropeias. t 1. tract 2, procem. indignum itaquc est vc-l 
utrumque vol immerentem saltern tarn immani vinculo hrnftnn 
eonstringi. [xii.] 

Contra die it las probe disserit 2Iachiavelh.is dtviiitu turn es-ic belli 
nerm quod vulgo creditur. DUcors. I. 2. cap. 10. . 

Pauper-fas 150 

Britannorum episeoporum paupertas Celebris apud Severum Sul- 
pitium tempore Constantii imper. sacra hist: 1 2. p. 157. [Small 
writing.] [xiii.] 

See Chaucer, no poverty but sin. wife of Baths tale. p. 36. 

Eleemosynte. vide de bonis ecclesiasticis. 151 

Edessenorum mira charitas in captivis Antiochensium redimendis 
vide apud Pi-ocopium Persic: 2. nam et meretrices ornatum suum 
ad id impendisse dicebantur, et rusticos jumenta sua vendidissc. 
p. G6. edit. gne. [Small writing.] 

Eleemosynas nostras hominibus notas ne velimus esse mdel 
Cliryso&tom. in Gen: orat. 8. argumento verissimo. quod homines 
plerumque ubi laudare debent, invident, non est ergo ut de humana 
laude multum speremus. 

Eleemosynarum profusissimi non semper vere pii ut in Adelbcrto 
Eporregiap marchione videre est, qui cum juvenis benigni>simo in 
paupcrcs animo fuisse visus essct, adult us famse ob pcrlidiam nc- 
quissima: ferebatur. Cu*phiian. in Berengario. p. 823. 

Erronibus mendicis non dandum nt monet Atticus episcopus 
Const: toU uiG)(XJVO^ii>o^ rtjv airncrii', <i\X' oi)\'i toi> ifi-rropiav mm 
fiiov Ti}v yaarepa irpoTtSeiKOGL. Soerat: 1. 7. c. 25. [Small writing.] 

Eleemosyme post mortem data: in iis rebu? perditis, et vanis 
numeral Ariostns quas ad circulum Luna: vulare llngit sine ullo 
dantium ffuctu. 1'elemosiHa e, dice, clic si lassa alcun, ehc kmtm sia 
dopo la morte. Cant. 34. [Small writing.] 



20 



A COMMON 1'L ACE LOOK 



160 Deusura 

usuram pcccare in naturam, et in artem ait Dantes . in na* 
quia facit ut nummi pariant nummos qui est partus non naturalis, in 
artem quia non laborat etc. vide cant: 11. inferno, et Dani 
in eum locum. [Small writing.] 

of the popes cruell usurers or merchands call'd Caursini see 
Speed, p. 532. 

num licita sit late disserit Rivet us. preelection, in decalog. 276. p. 
et affirmativam tuetur. 



177 Index Politicus 

Respublica 

immunitatem officiorum civilium clcricis edicto Banxit Constan- 
tinus. JSuseb: hist: 1. 10. c. 7. [Small writing. J 

the form of state to he fitted to the peoples disposition some live 
best under monarchy others otherwise, so that the conversions ol 
commonwealths happen not always through ambition or malice, 
as amoung the Romans who after thire infancy were ripe for a m 
free goverment then monarchy, beeing in a manner all fit to be 
Ks.. afterward growne unruly, and impotent with overmuch pros- 
perity were either for thire profit, or thire punishment fit to I 
curb'd with a lordly and dread full monarchy; which was the error 
of the noble Brutus and Cassius who felt themselves of spirit to free 
an nation but consider'd not that tbe nation was not fit to be free, 
whilst forgetting thire old justice and fortitude which was modi to 
rule, they became slaves to thire owne ambition and luxuric. 

Inter rcligtonem ct rempub. divorlium esse non potest. Camthn. 
Elizab. ad lectorem, 

Contrariie sentential erat llospitaliua Gallia? cancellarius pru- 
dentissimus, multi, inquit, eives MM poituat qui minime sint 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



21 



christians, et qui ab ecclesiai gremio remotus est, non desinit ease 
civis, et pacate vivere possumus cum iis qui non eaclera sacra 
nobiscum colunt. Tiiuan. hist. L 29. p. 74. 

Respub. regno potior, perche delle repub. escano piu huomini 
eceellenti, che de regni. perche in quelle il piu delle volte si 
honora la virtu, ne regni si terne. ccc. Afacchiavel. arte di guerra. 
1. 2. p. 63. 

I declare it my opinion in my discourses upon Livy, that the yrcat 
actions wee read of in thai Historic, and that the excellencie of those 
counsels and atchievements, and the improvement which mankind, 
and as I may soe say> humane nature it sdfe obtained amongst the 
Romans did proceed naturally from their govemement, and ic 
a plaine effect and consequence of the perfection of their Common- 
wealth. MachiaveVs Letter before his works printed at London 107o, 
pag: 3\ [Lord Preston's writing.] 

Amor in patriaxn 

virtus ista caute a philosophis petenda est non enim circus et 
earnalis patriae amor ad rapinas, et csedes, et odium vicmarum 
gentium rapere nos debet, at patriam imperic, opibus, aul glorisl 
augcamus sic enim ethnici fecerunt Christianos autcm inter so 
pacem colore oportet, et non appetere afiena banc ob causam 
invebitar in philosophiam Lactuntius I. 6. c. G. 

of S r Pierce de la Mere: see Holinsh. Ed. 3. p. 410. 411. 418. 
the Thomas of Woodstock J), of Gloster. the reigne of Ri. 2. 
Holinsh Richard Fitz Allaino E. of Arundel for hi? whole lif 
noble and Memorable, and in his death also under Rich. 2. 
Holinsh 

Leges. 

Sarauaruola esseiulosli mandato una scommuniea da Poma n<m 

o , 

Tubbedi dicendo in sua difesa una bella parabola per la qu Sl6 I I 
pruova che si de piu tosto ubbodiiv alia intmtionc delle Icggl cho 

alio parole. 1. l. p. 48. 49, rinoVation. deila chieaa. 



22 



A 0OM51ONPI.ACE liOOK 



Lombard saith that laws were first devis'd to bound and limit 
the power of governours ; that they might not make lust thire judge 
and might thire minister archeion. c. 3. 

some say they ought to have reasons added to them, il legislatore 
che rende ragione del suo detto, diminuiscc l'autorita sua, perchc il 
suddito s'attacca alia raggione addotta, e quando crcde haverla ri 
luta, pensa d'haver anco levata la virtu al precetto. Condi. 7 • L 
1. 6. p. 460. 

Alfred turn'd the old laws into english. I would he liv'd now 
Mo, p. SC. to rid us of this norman gibhrish. [xiv.] the laws of MoId utiua. 

as Holinsh. p. 15. and of Quecnc Martia. see Holinshed. in the 
raignc of Sisilius the son of Guintoline. p. 19. Inaa also of the 
west saxons K: made many laws Holinshed, 1. G. c. 1. and h il 
was that made that shamefully and unworthy law of Pccter pence, 
renew'd also by the murderer QfEa the Mercian so thinking to 
expiate his horrid sins. Holinshed, 1. 6. c. 4. [xv.] 

De jure naturali, gentium, et civili quid statuant jurisperiti: vide 
Justinian, institut. 1. 1. tit. 2. [Small writing.] 

Edward the Confessor rcduc't the laws to fewer, pick't diem, 
and set them out under name of the common law. HoliruL L 8. 
c. 4. 

Lawyers opinions turn with the times for private ends. Speed. 
614. G15. Rich. 2. but thire end is to be COnsider*d. p. 616. 

Kings of England swornc to the Laws Bee Kex.at thire crowning. 
King William the Conq. sworne solemnly the second time in the 
church of St. Albans, which lie presently broke. Q oHntk . p. 1<'. 

» granted also [xyi.] Henry the .1. comming to the Cfowae* prenui tli to 

by charted abolish the unjust laws of the Normans and to fc oH OW thr i. 
HolinsU 181 Edward. IIolinaL p. 28. Maud the empressc, doming the 

Speed j5 ; 447. Londoners request in this point Loel therbj the fore forwmi 
^SdatnT * hc was in » 10 fche crowno - BMuL Steph. p. 68. K. John at 

crowning, n ^ s absolution from the Popei cure, and interdiction ptomis'd 
SiS^^the same. fiHMk p. 180. m also p. IS l which 

- performe cost him all the trouble that itieoeoded p. 189 Ml I p 186, 



OF JOIIX MILTON. 



23 



Henry the 3 d at the a betwixt him and Lewis swore together with 
his protector the E. of Pemb. for him that he would restore all 
the rights and liberties before demanded of his father. Holinsh. 
p. 201. urg'd about it by the B. of Cantur. p. 204. 205. for the 
which deny'd Lewis the f. K. refuses to restore Normandy upon 
demand to Hen. 3. the same K. demanded againe ehiftingiy 
answers p. 205. and begins to assaile his barons, ibid, upon a 
fifteen granted Hen. 3. confirms by parliament the 2 t 
magna, and de Foresta. an. reg. 9. p. 207. but cancel] 'd by him 
most ignobly when he came to age. p. 208 Hubert dc Burgh becing 
cheife setter on. p. 209. but after beeing at full age freely of his owne 
consent an. reg. 21. granted and confirm'd these 2 charters. 
Holinsh. p. 220. also an. reg. 37. with sentence of excommunication 
against the breakers therof. p. 248. with particular execration which 
the K. used against him selfe if he broke them, ibid, yet afterwards 
sought to be absolv'd of it by the Pope, and breaks, p. 249. srworne 
to it againe with his son Prince Edward p. 258. and also Richard 
E. of Cornwall after his proud denial, p. 261, and curse denonnc't 
on the breakers. 262. causes his absolution to be road. 2f>3. accepts 
againe the ordinances of Oxford. 265. renounces' again, ibid, pi - 
mises again beeing prisoner to the Barons. 2GS. and confirm'd by v. 
pari, at Marleborow 274. vide subditus. 

Mores Gentium 180 

a dangerous thing, and an ominous thing, to imitate with ( &nu -t- 
nessc the fashions of ncighour nations: so the English ran moo nin g 
after the French in Ed ward confessor's time, god turn the omen 8tn, i> M 
from these days, [xvii.] 

modestia quidem principis, cum do mystcriis rcligionis ab cruditis cjn* atubo- 
ct fidelibus cpiscopis ad ejus authoritatem rcfertur, valde Inudabilis ^V.t.' 

* The n ord true* Komi omitted 



24 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



est. sic Valentinianus cum de o^oovala episcopi ad eum mittercnt. 
vide quse respondent. Hist: Miscel: 1. 12. p. 351. el 354. vi 
quatenus Constantinus se dixerit esse episcopum. Euseb: 1: 4. vit: 
(21. 10) Const: c. 24. [Small writing.] at idem Constantinus petentUms 
Donatistis id 1 judices de eontrpversiis inter se ei Carthaginis episcopum 
ortis claret, rcligio[si]s$ime respondit: petitis a me in seculo judi- 
cium, cum ego ipse cristi ejepectem judicium. Sigon. de oc 
imp. I. 3. 

in re divina tanquam utto^t/;?, et interpres Aidani praeit populo 
suo rex Northumbrian Osualdus, et explicat, quae Aidanua minus 
feliciter expresserat propter linguae imperitiam. Beda. et ex eo 
Uolinshed. 

concerning the dutie and office of an English K. how to govcrne 
read the dying counsail of lien. 4. to his son. Sto. 

reges vix se mortales agnoscunt, vix humanura sapiunt, nisi ant 
quo die creantur aut quo moriuntur, illo die humanitatem, et 
lenitatem simulant, spe popularis aura captandae. hoc mortem ante 
oculos habentes male factorum conseientia, quod res est, fatentur, 
se misellos homines esse, vide mortem Gul. 1. conquistoris Anglue. 
apud Stoum nostrum, et abdicationem Ed: 2: 

reprehensionis justa3 patictia egrcgic Theodosius scnio- 
Ambrosio reprehensus gravitcr et in ordincm redactus ob ca lem 
- Thessalonicensium. Hist: AfisceL'l. 13. p. 376. [Small writing.] 

Counsels unjust he shames not to reverse, thus did til 
Ed. 1. that cruel statute, which ho had made quo waranto ] ( KH iving 
himselfe to incurre the hatred of his people therby Holinsh. p. 230. 

ad subditos suos scribens Constantinus Magnus non alio nomine 
quam fratres appellat, vide epist, Constantini ad Alexandria S, 
Socrat: 1. 1. c. G. Vide et Euseb: de vita Constant: 1. 3 o. L8, in 
fine, et 1. 3. c. 58. in epist. Constantini ad populum A niuvhenum 
initio, et fine, et alibi. [Small writing.] Augustus Imperii f r- 
mator no dominum quidem did so volohat, et hoc cnim dei tst 
cognomen, dieam plane imperatonan dominum, sod quando DOa 
coaor ut dominum dei vice dieam; caUorum liber sum ilii, dominus 



OF JOHN MIL/rON. 



25 



meus deus unus est &c. Tertull: ap£>loget: p. 31. edit: Kigali: qui 
pater patriae est quomodo dominus est? ibid: 

optimum esse si rex filium suura in regnum post se traditurus sit Dc fa - k 
sic instituat, ut credat patrem suum regni succcssionem non aetati * to J^J° 
ejus sed meritis destinare, nee se paternum impcriura tanquam 
prrcdam hoereditariam, sed ut virtutis prseniium accepturum; proinde 
ut sccreto potius apud se statuat, quam publice declaret quern sit 
regni hseredem relicturus, et velut in dubio relinquat ea opera, per- 
ficiet, ut ne puer nimis ferociter se gerat, min usque adulatorum 
grege stipatus sit, nec vitae patris insidias struat, cum in incerto sit 
fueritne alias a patre designatus cujus judicium assensus popnli 
facile sequatur. hoc modo Joannes Ducas Bataza filium reliquit 
Thcodorum ad regni spem non certain nisi post patris mortem, ut 
scribit Nicepkoms Gregor. 1. 3. c. 1 : the not observing this wrought 
our Hen. 2. a -world of disquiet and danger. HolinsL p. 76. hinc 
Elizabetha Mariam scoticam hseredem suam declarare uoluit. Can d. 
p. 65. 67. 6S. et amplius 106. 

the crowning of Ks in England not admitted till thire oath 
receav'd of justice to be administerd, according to the laws. Si 
and Molinsh * William conqueror, and other Ks. K. Rich, the 2 
also renew'd his oath in parliament time in the church at W estmin. 
Stew. an. reg. 11. Richard the 1. JJolinsh. p. 118. at large. 

Solennitas coronandi Caesaris Caroli q u in Italia, apud -Ion 
i. 27. [p. 106]. 

Unction refus'd by Hcnricus aucepa a famous German Emper r, 

Cuspinian. in his life. 

Crowning of French Ks. Sleidan, L 19. 327t 

Elcctio Germanorum imp. quando ccpta est fieri, t/H$pmitm* 

Otto 3: p. 254. 

Conditiones Crcsari futuro accipiend* apud Sfeitfan. extant L 1. 
p 15 Sec. 

Conditiones itidem impcratori GrSBOO future in so recipteiMta 
• " jtnd HolinthM" Mrs u 1 '» ' tattw margin 

. CAM!) BOC, 1 



26 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



Codinus Curopalat. dc officiis Constantinopol. c. 17. dc coronatione 
imperatoris. 

182 Rex 

adorari se primum Romanorum esse passum Dioclesianum scribir 
Sigordus de imp. occid 1. 1. cum ante cum omnes Romani impcn<- 
tores consulari tantum salutatione contend fuissent. quod alii de- 
Constantino asserunt. 

Christiani antiqui quid senscrint de hoc Justin us martyr ad 
imper: Pium scribens declarat fiindaiu super Christi doctrina. Ben- 
tentia ut Csesari demus quai Ccesaris <leo qua3 dei sunt, g6<ev inquit 
6eov fiev fiovov r irpoaKvvov/J.€v, vfitv £>e 7rp6? ra a\\a yaipOl 
v7n]p€Tov/x€v ubi plane irpoafcvvrjati 1 soli deo, regibus wpoOv/ioi 
vTrripeTTqatv tribuit. apolog: 2. p. 6 I . 

Leges suas Justinianus alibi vocal oracula; ct nostra divina 
constitutio. institut. 1. 2. tit. 2. §. 9. et sacratissimum a?rarium. 
ibid. 

authoritatem rcgiam a Papa non oVpcndere scrips! Fl ■ 

rentinus in eo libro cui est titulo Monarehia quern librum Cardi- 
nalisdcl Poggietto tanquam scriptum Hsereticum comburi curat i 
testatur JBoccatius in vita Dantis editione priore nam e posteriori 
mentio istius rei omnia est dcleta ab inquisitore. [Small wiiti g 
thus far.] 

ofheium ct definitio impcratori* cgregia est. Jus Grreco Romanum, 
1. 2. p. 178. cx Lib. dc jure qui est Basil. Constant. Lconis ubi ait 
toVo? tco fiaaCkd to €V€py6TUV J KOt ijriKa TlfS eutpytaioQ efaTOi >;cr;; 

Sored Kifi&vjteveiv -iov (SaatXtKvi' x a P aKT ^P a - wd* etUn Orland. 
inaniorat. del Berni cant. 7. Stan*, 3 un rc sc vuole il suo debito 
fare, non h re vcramentc ma fattorc del popolo etc. 

the clcrgic commonly the corrupters of kingly authority turning 
it to tyrannic by thirc wicked llatteiies even in the pulpit as An. 
rco-. Rich. 2. an. 21. Stafford bishop of Kxceter in p.uliamcnt time 
which was cause ofgrcat mischef to both K. and country. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



27 



the right of Ks. to the goods of his subjects, the answer of 
Reginald to Ruscand the popes legat. Leg. all churches are the 
popes. Begin, truth, to defend, but not to use them to serve his 
owne turne, as wee say all is the princes, that is all is his to defend, 
but not to spoile. Holinsh. p. 253. 

Severus Suljritius ait regium nomen semper liberis gentibus fere de nwoai bii 
invisum damnatque factum Hebra3orum quod praioptarent libertatem 
servitio mutare. Hist: Sac. 1. 1. p. 5G. 

the first original of a K. was in paternal authority, and from 
thence ought patterne himselfe how to be tovrard his subjects: Smith. 
Com-wel. c. 12. 

the cause and reason of creating kings, see well expressed in 
Haitian Hist France. 1. 13. p. 719. 

no king can give away his k.dom without consent of the whole 
state. Holinsh. 191. as appears also by the letters of the parliament 
sent to the pope with consent of Edw. 1. concirning the realm 
of Scot. Holinsh. p. 311. So also it was answerd to Hen. 3 of 
France by the parlament at Blois. Thuan. hist. 03. p. 1 SG. nullo 
casu alienari a rege patrimonium corona? posse, quippe cujufl rex 
tantum sit usufructuarius, proprietatc penes rcgnum etc. ibid, 
[xviii.] 

whether Monarchy be a power absolute. Sir Tho. Smith 
answercth. that neither it nor any other kind of common wealth il 
pure an absolute in his kind, no more then the element | UN 
in nature, or the complexions, and temperatures in q 1 Ay DUl Ittixt 
with other, for that nature will not suffer it. corn-w ealth Eng. 0, tl. 
And in the 9 c. that the act of a k. neither approved by the people, 
nor establisht by act of parliament is taken for nothing either t ■ 
bind the k., his successors, or his subjects, instancing in k. John 
who resignd his crowne to Pandulfus Pot Pope. 

I re Aragonesi non hanno assoltita fautorita rtgifl in tutte lc cose. 
Guiecicu'din. I. 6. Hist. p. 3 I V. 

definition of Sir Tho. Smith is A K.is who by Mice. ,. : > 
election commeth with good will of the people to his government. 



28 



A COMMONPLACE HOOK 



and doth administer the com. welth by the laws of the same ami 
by equity, and doth sceke the profit of the people as hi? owno. and 
on the contrarie, he that corns by force, breaks laws at his pleasure, 
maks other without consent of the people, and regardeth not the 
wealth of the commons, but the advancement of himselfe, 
faction, and his kindred he defines for a tyrant, c. 7. See Arist. 
eth. 9. c. 10. o fAtv 7«p rvpavvo^ tc eavro) crv/i6Cpov (tkottu. q c : 
fiaaCkevs to to)v apxofievajv* 

I regni che hanno buoni ordini non danno imperio anoluto a 
gli loro re se non negli esserciti, perche in questo luogo boI i e 
necessaria una subita delibcratione &c. Fabricio appo MacchiveL 
arte di guerra 1. 1, p. 15. 

' 183 Subditus. vide rex. vide do Idolatria 1 et Beditione.' 

Papa Gregorius Italoa juramcnta, quo Leoni Isauro obligantur, 
Pnpa snbditos exolvit Si 9 on: * e g" ItSli L * * 

iuramcuto Keenum Chilncrico propter ignaviam abrogat Zacharias Papa 
u ei ex? ° VJt * Francis sacrament! rellgione solutis. Sijon: reg. Ital: L 3. p. 74. 

Ordines Belgii imperium Philippo abrogant, scripto etiam edito 
flagse^i eique obedientiam renuntiare provincial jubentur. Thuan. 
I. 74, p. 513. 

England a free nation not only at home but from all claim what- 
soever, from Pope bc6 HoUmheadL 101., et 311. from Kmpcrour as 
appeares by meeting the empcrour Sigismond with drawn fm 
Hen. 5. Speed, p. 646. 

Parlamcnt by three estates churchmen Lords and commons first 
convocated by Charles Mattel] to elect him prince of the french 
about the year I'M). 

The commons of France gMTO instruction? to thir knights 
and burgesses. For when Bodin who serv'd lor the country of 

• This quotation from Aristotle in in the margin. 

b These two Articles uro not in the \«*\\ of the volume or iu the UMc at 
the end. 



OF JOHN MILTON". 



29 



Yermandois in the great Parlament at JBlois 1576 had spokn 
somtliing displeasing to the courtiers, they suborned som of that 
countrie to accuse him for going against thir instructions. Utuan. 
hist. 1. 53. p. 179. 

to say that the lives and goods of the subjects are in the hands 
of the K. and at his disposition is an article against Ri. 2. in pari, 
a thing ther said to be most tyrannous and unprincely. Holinsh. 
503. 

the liberties of English subjects, vide de legibus. magna charts, 
and charta de forcsta subscrib'd and seal'd to by K. John betwixt 
stanes and Windsore. Hblinsh. p. 185. 186. but got to be made 
void by the Pope p. 189. but manfully rejected by the barons, 
ibid. 

the Earl of Chester bare the sword of St. Edward before the an I 
Iv. in token that he was Earle of the palace, and had autority to 
correct the K. if he should see him swerve from the limits of 
Justice. Holinsh. Hen. 3 d . 219. this sword is called by S V 
Curtana. p. 603. Rich. 2. 

the citizens of London toll-free throughout all England by the 
charter of Hen. 3 d . Holinsh. p. 208. other thirc liberties confirm*.! 
by Ed. 3. Holinsh. p. 343. 

the 24 govcrnours chosen at the parliament abuse thirc liberty. 
Holinsh. p. 259. the charters and liberties confirm'd and seal'd 
by Edward 1. Holinsh. 306. and declared in Parliament, ibid: 
certain earls undertak for him to scale and confirm againc. p. 307. 
confirm'd again in parlament but the clause salvo jun COI 
offends the barons and the whole people 308. renews the confir- 
mation of the charters. 309. ibid, and at Lincoln. 312. procures to 
be absolved of his oath by the pope 313. Ed. 3. assents to good 
part in parliament. Holinsh, p. 36L but both Ed. 1. and Ed ■ ">• 
assent and confirm absolutely saith Speed* about a dozen times by 
tills K. 596. 

of Parliament Liberties. Holinsh. 452". 

the Lib Chauncellour the chcife juMico ami the Treasurer i 1< ctl 1 



30 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



or depos'd by the pari, of ancient custom Lomb. Archeion. out of 
Mat, Paris 

Speed makes the beginning of Parlaments in Hen. 1. days. p. 
449. 

If the Pope be not greater then a councel, then is no K. to be- 
thought greater then the Parlament. See de Coacilils. 

Tenures of Fief or Feud thought to be brought in by Charles 
the great. Girard. Hist. France 1. 4 p. 229. although the original 
seem to be unjust, for that which was conquer'd land ought freely 
to be divided to the people according to merit, and to hold only by 
his truth and fidelity to the commonwealth. Wherin doubtles the 
Roman Agrarian laws are more noble. Hence that Historian con- 
fesses p. 232. that they who hold in fief, arc in a manner servant?. 



Lcnitas 

Lenitas riimia rcgi Sigcberto Oricntalium Saxouum pernicioea. 
Malnubur. 1. 1. c. f>. et Stow 

prohibition of books not the wisest cours. punitis ingeniis gliscit 
autoritas. and indeed we ever see that the forbidden writing is 
thought to be a certain spark of truth that flyctK up in the face- of 
them that seek to chok and tread it out, wheras a book autorized 
is thought to be but the language of the time. S r Fmn. Bacon in 
a discours of church afi'nrs. 

Prohibition of books when first us'd. The storic therof is in the 
Councel of Trent 1. G. strait from the beginning p. 4"»7. && 

Quid utilitatis ex adversarioruni lihris, si scmotis odiis caritatem, 
et a?quitatem induamus, ad dci gloriam capi pofirit, illustii 
mcnto ostendit Thuanu$ t dum narral Bibliorum vcrsioncm a Bibli- 
audro, et Pellicano Lnchoatam, a thcologis Ilispanis cousquc 
probatam, ut illam ipsi suppresses vcrorura authurum nominiluis 
edcre non dubitarent. Thmm. hi?t. 1. 30. p. 'JS7. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



31 



Tyrannus. vide. 248. * 185 

Sigerbertus Westsaxonum tyrannus leges patrias conculcuns 
meritas luit poenas Malmesbur. L L Sto. 

Richard the 2 d . in his 21 yeare holding a violent parlamcnt 
shorten'd his days, see in Sto. the violences of that pari, sec other 
tyrannicall acts an. 22. and of this pari. Bolinsh. 490. 

see de Rege out of Sir Tho. Smith, 7 et 8 e. his definition. 

and Basil, distinguishes a tyrant from a K. briefly thus, touto 
yap hiafyepeu rvpavvos fiacriXeros, on 6 fiev to cavrov iraiTayodev 
GKoireZ, 6 8e rb rol<; ap%op,evoL<; axpeXifiov iKiropL^et.. Tom. i. 456. 

Tyrannicall practizes of Rich. 2. and his accomplices, see Holuuk. 
p. 456. an. reg. 11. 457. 458. 462. 487. see also the par). HoUmL 
490. 493: blanck charters. 496. and other tyrannical actions, ibid, 
see also the articles against him in parliament. Ilolin. 502. also 
508. [xix.] 

the Black Prince, by aiding the cruel tyrant Rector of Castile /) 
brought hirnselfe to all the mischeifs that fell on his latter days nnd t - vranU - 
his fathers for besides the suspicion of poyson in the voiagc lie 
brought himself into so deep debt, beeing defrauded of bis - 
pay by the ingratfull tyrant, that he was forc't to raise thai sharp 
taxation of fuage in Aquitain wherby he lost the country. Bd€ OUI 
writers, and Spe. p. 597. 

whether it be lawfull to rise against a tyrant ? 5" Tkomat SmilA 
prudently answers that the common people judge of that act 
according to the event, and successe. and the learned according to 
the purpose of the doers &C. Com-wealt.h of Engl, & ■"». , N 

Ludovieus pius beeing made judge of a certain German tyrant, 
approves the people who had depos'd him, and sets his younger 
brother up in his stead. Girard. Hist Trance. 1. 4. p. 848. [xxi.] 

Scoti proceres missis ad Elizabethan! legatis post Mariam regno 
pulsam jure id factum multia exemplis contendunt. Tfman. hist. 
1. 50. pug. 769. [xxii.] 

of the deposing of a tirant and proceeding against him. KuharU 



32 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



the 2d was not only depos'd by parliament, but sute made by 
the commons that he might have judgement decreed against him 
to avoid furder mischeif in the realm. Holinsh. 512. [xxiii.] 

Petrus Martyr in 3 c. Jud. eis qui potestatem superiorem eligunt 
certisque a legibus reipub. prasficiunt 9 ut hodie electores imperii etc. 
licere, si princeps pactis, et promissis non steterit, cum in ordinem 
cogere, ac vi adigere, ut conditiones, et pacta qua? fuerat pollicitus, 
compleat, idque vel armis cum aliter fieri non possit. citatque 
authorem Polydorum nostros homines aliquando suos reges compu- 
Usse ad rationem reddendam pecuniae male administrate, [xxiv.] 
(13. 1) Ad un principe cattivo non h altro rcmcdio che il ferro. A curare 
An occidere \ a malaitia del popolobastdno le parole ; e a quella delpriticipe bit i 
il ferro. Maccliiavel. discors. c. 58. L 1. 

nec imperatorcm perpetratis flagitiis urgere metuunt prill 
Germanise quo quidem rex quivis Earopseua nequc major ncque 
sanctior potest esse, ne quis fhcinus esse putct regem jnstas ob 
causas accusationibus appetere. vide Sleidan, 1. 18. 299. 

vitam principum aerumnosam, et perpetuo Bollicitam, etiam eorum, 
qui rem propius non intuentibus, fclices videntur, describit Cominscus 
testis persrepe ocuiatus. Comines. L 8. c. 13. p. 684. &c. 

De monarchic Galliea ad tyrannidem Turcicam rcdigciula con- 
' ' silium Blesis fuisse initum a regc Car. 9, rcgina matre, aliis tradit 
Thuanu* : et rationes ejus rei pcrficicnda? persane commodas a 
Ponceto quodam explicatas fuse narrat. Hist: L 57« p. 970 [xxv.] 

Reges a subditis potestate cxuti, aut minuti, nulla rcconeili 
nc interposito quidem juramcnto postea placantur. cxcmpla reeenti- 
memorial, extant Thuan. hist. I. 71. 423. 

186 Rex Anglta &c. 

his right to France, and the falsehood of the Salick law shewing 
how divers Ks of France came in by the femftk ^idc. sec Holinsh 
Hen. 5. p. 54)5. 546. and Speed in Hen. 5. 638. 

» «te"nml a tliinl ilK::il»lo latter follow, hut the) arc superfliv 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



33 



but ratifl'd in full parlameni at Paris by oaths of all the nobles. 
Speed, p. 657 

Rex Gallise parlamenti sui perpetui decretis parare necesse habet, 
ut scribit Claudius Sesellins, quod ille frasnum regis vocat; de repub. 
Gallor. If 1. ad quaistores etiam publicos rationes expensaruin regi- 
arum refemntur: quas i 11 1 potestatem minuendi habent, si immode- 
ratas vel inutiles esse cognoverint. ibid, [xxvi.] 

the wealth of the crown without oppression of subjects may be 
seen in the expences which Q. Eliz. was at in maintaining warre 
with her monies in divers places abroad, and at the same time 
paying her debts at home. Camd. vol. 2. p. '20. 

Muliercs a publica rerum administrate ">ne omni excludi solitas 
ostendit lib. cui titulo Franco Gallia apud ThUan. hist. I. 57. p. 969. 

victu modico esse regem decere dicerem nisi apud Cus± 
legerem, Francos non ferre regem qui 10 drachmis vile pranderet 
obsonium vide in vita Berengarii. p. 221. 

vide veram regis deseriptionem, in Bracton de Lcgg: ft Consuelua: 
Ana: I. L cap: 8. ad'finem. qui irecentis ah hinc annU 
tempore sci. Henrici 3 ji . [Lord Preston's writing.] 

Kex Hebraeorum legibus non erat solutus vide Schickard. jus 
regium. Thcor. 7. 

Scotland was at first an elective kingdom for a long time vidi 

Hjst. Scot. 

France an elective kingdom either to choose or to depoee, 
Bernard de Girard. Hist. Franc, faut notcr, che jusquca b 11;: )y 
Capet, tons les rois de France out este eleuz par le Fran* >ii qui | 
sc rescrverent ceste puissance d'elire e bannir e chasser leur roi 
L l.p. 19. in fol. et I 3. p. 123 relection cstpit conditionelle. el 1 
p. 129. 134 

P»y Parlament of three estates, first then found OUl Charli l M irt 
was chosen Prince of the French. Bern. rf« Girard I. & p, iOO, 
and Pepin, lung. 1. 3. p. 131 Afterward Cliarta ihc Si . 
though of the race of Charles tKeXjfreat^deposM, and Uolx N crownM 
in his stead by the French aymants micux, M BAllll the History, 

CAMD. MM'. I'' 



34 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



avoir un noveau roy habille homme. qu' un hereditaire sot et idiot 
Girard. Hist Franc. 1. 5. p. 298. 

Kead also the excellent speech of an embassador from the french 
to Charles duke of Lorrain shewing reason why they had rejected 
him the right heir to the crown, and chosen Hugh Capet. Girard. 
1. 6. p. 327. see also the like speech before of Pope Steevn, crowning 
Pepin. 1. 3. 134. 

' Schola Sorbonica in ccctu GO Theologorum pronuntiant contra 
regem .pro defensionc religionis anna capi posse. Thuan. L94. 391 



87 Aulici, et Consiliarii 

what trust great courtiers may have in present pleasing the K. 
with violence and undue courses against the people on praHena 
maintaining regal right the downfall of Hubert may testil 
Speed, see also of the Judges in Rich. 2. in the chapter Legea in 
this book. 

See also an excellent description of such an Oligarchy of nobles 
abusing the countnance to the ruin of royal sovranty Arcad. Sidney . 
1. 2. p. 119. &c. 

Aidicorum bene merit a citb frigtscere ostendii Upidis vereibtu 
Boiardus Pocta Itahs in Orlando Inamorato. I. 2. cant. 2P n0 . 

• bant serrir di Cortiyiano 

La sera e (jrata c la ma/ Una c vano. 
his addit ejus reformator Jhrnia UctniSC IS 

Si suole in Spagha un ttrto detto U&are 
(Certo qvcgli SpagnxioH han di bei traiH) 
Gh'un serciyio val piu eke s'habbia a fart 
Che cento mila milion diffctH. 
Most tyrants have ordinarily near* unto their owue pinOM MOM 
Minions, of whom they make great account and reckoning: ichom 
they use as spungee to sud up their n&jecU blood, upon whom whm 
occasion serveth they discharge thenudves to the end that Otj . 

enfring into/urie, should seise Upon them, and spare thct ' $ : f 



1713391 



OF JOHN MILTON. 35 

had Tiberius, Sejanus ; Nero, Tigillin ; Dionyse the younger^ 
Phyliste ; and of late Henry King of Sueden, George Preachon, 
ivliom wee read to have heen given as a prey to the furious people and 
by them to have been rent and tome in pieces. Bodin: de Repiib: edit: 
Aug. Lond. 1G06. I 2. e. 5. p. 226. 

Antonius Caracalla the Empcrour, to please the people put to death 
all the flatterers who had before induced him to hill his Brother, 
Neither did Caligula in better sort use his Clawbacfces. peg: eddeni. 

An excellent discourse against those Senators who have assisted gr>< i 
Prinzes in their tyranny out of ambition or avarice. Troj: Boccalini, 
Cent: 2da, Advert: l:ci, pag: 272. [The last three entries are in 
Lord Preston's writing, J 

Astutia politica 

homines per honores feriendi et evertendi artifcx Leiccstriu! 
vide de Waltero Essexio Camd. 264, EHzab. etde duce Norfoh i 
qui ejus insidiis ad nuptias cum Maria Seota Lnducto, vide ct 
eundem p. 475. Sic alter Essexius iisdera dolis periit Camd.\o\. 2, 
176. 

such art us'd the stepdam of Plangos excellently set out by 
Sidney. 1. 2. 35G. 

ftandolphns Walsinghamo per litem monet at ille Secrct;r, ii. 
ipse Legati technis jam tandem valediccret, et pceniteado divinani 
misericordiam implorarent Camden, vol. 2. p. 27. ipSJ tauten in 
repub. viri integri, et religionis studiosi hnbiti , cpio quifl ediactt 
qnanto conscientire cum tumultu res politica tracletur. 

The wicked policies of divers deputies and governoun in Ireland 
Sec Spenser dialogue of Ireland. 

Promissorum fidem a principibus exigvndam, quatcnus cam pncstari Fulw {mania 
lis expedit. Ita Scotia: regens pn>t<-tantium hgatis respond i t . >on,m 
Thuanus. hist. L 21. p. 847. [xxvii.] cujus dieti mi <"> MUD ptMUtuit 
p. G49. 

Imperii aulici arcana, et lubrioam (idem populo attain exprctse 

declarant like liteno momtOrMB ad Colininm missu paulo nnto 



36 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



lanienam Parisiensem quibus si pariaisset non ita miserabili occisione 
cum suis periisset vide Thuan. List. L 52. statim ab initio, p. 
805. 806. 

(2u. 2) Ilcec est prudentia scculi istius. quam politicam appellant : utile 

quod put ant, non duhitant honesto prcrfevre ; quod utile judicant : 
necessarium esse statuant, quod nccessarium, licere : Jtivet. in Exod. 
cap. 1. 

189 J)e legibus earum dispensationibus et indulgentiis. 

Dispensations in legibus humanis admittuntur propter legifilatoris 
imperfectionem qui non satis providit omnia, proindc in legibus 
dei non habent locum cui nihil oecultum itaque dispensationes 
non possunt esse indulgentiac ad peccatum sed honestissimis e causis 
nata3 ipsrc proinde honcstoe. alioquin indigME prorsus qua? a deo 
concederentur. vide concil. Tridenf. quae ab Joanne Verduno solide 
sunt disputata p. 658. 1. 7. edit. Loud, adjungit dispensationem non 
esse aliud quam legis interpretationera. [xxviii.] 
Contra leges. I re di Spagna severamente hanno proliibito chc a le Indie non 
possino passar avocati e procurator!, lioccalini raggual. di Parnas. 
raggual. 79. lo studio delle leggi per editto assai noto non essendo 
tenuto per arte liberale, ma mestiere, ed arte veramcntc mechanics, 
nel mondo introdotta per aflligere ii genero humane etc. ibid, v. | j 
et raggual. 72. 

vide et vitam Petrachse a Thomuuino Paduano scriptam ubi 
Petracha juvenis legum studiutn avexsatur. 

ne occorrcrebbono tanti interpret!, ne tanti legulei chc andasscro 
con istiracchiamcnti, or qua or la torcendo la spada dclla giutisi • 
gia divenuta di piombo, schichcr-.m do mt to il giolTM) lc cart^ I 
trattati c consigli, e k'tturc, c nialanni, chc hanno appc^tata di.i 
in guisa chc voglionvi i magazzini ili libri, c non vi rcsta piu capo 
e via di cosa alcuna, truovandosi in qu.d li VOglif c:i?o (Utile d^tt'. inc. 
mille parcri, millc decisioni Tuna OOBtntlk all' ihtft, fetti r fa 
esse d'amicizie, o di roba, o d'honore, e tiratr per font di SoUtgtiem 
d'ingegno, e d'astutie. Pensieri di Fa$90H4 1. 7. quetl v 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



37 



Scrive di piu anch'egli, clie hoggidi pure in Ruvo citta dell* 
Apulia, i dottori di leggi non possono entrap in consiglio, ne havere 
uffici publici. E in Norcia terra dello stato Ecclesiastico, quando 
s'cntra in consiglio si grida fuori i letterati, e i ofIici a non si danno 
ne a Dottori, ne a letterati, e con tutto cio quella terra nelle passate 
calamitose penurie che afflissero Italia si governo tanto prudenta- 
mente che negli abitatori di essa ne alcuna delle villc di quel dis- 
tretto sentirono gli incomraodi di cosi generale estremita. E Lilio 
Grcgorio Giraldo in quel suo discorso che fece contra le lettere 
scrive che i Velitresi fecero una volta uno statute che letterato 
alcuno nella citta loro non potesse havere ufficio. II che sccondo 
un altro scrittore decretarono similmente una volta i Lucchesi contra 
i dottori di legge. Tassvni ibid. 

Natural Equity in all cases cannot in a?v/ Law bee comprised, but 
is oft times to bee leaft to the religious arbitrement of men expert in 
matters of State. Bodin: Edit: Aug: Lend. L. 2: c. 5. pog: 226. 
[Lord Preston's writing.] 

Libertas 

non est ut urbs amore libertatis ducta quamvis prseclara facinora 
meditetur, earn tamen amissam recuperet, ut Cresecntio Nomen- 
tano antiquam Romance reipub. formam reducere conanti male 
successit. Cuspin. Otto. 3. ut et poetea Nicolao Rentio, qui 
tribunus pleb. vocari gestiit. 

Quid jurisconsult! de libertate et servitutc statuant vide J (t- 
nian. 1. 1. institut. tit. 3. 

Libertati favet jus civile, vide Justinian, institut lib. 1. kit 8. 
§. 2. dc servo instituto hserede sine libertate. ct §. causi manu- 
missionis semel probata non rctractctur. ct vide ibid, I. '2. tit. 7. 
§.3. !? 

Tyranni armormn atudium in populo extinguen oonantur. i re 
passati temendo del impeto dc popoli havevano attessoa disannargli, 
etalienargli dagli essercitii milttari etc. QwccianL I 'J. verso la line. 
■ Seemingly a mistake for a#fei 



38 



A COMMON FI* ACE BOOK 



Kobilitas 

A dei spiritu derivanda non a majoribus aut legibus humanis, lit 
excclso animo Romanus martyr nobilis apud Prudentium. — absit 
ut me nobilem sanguis parentum praestet, aut lex curiae &c. 
deinde dei parentis esse ab ore caepimus, cui quisquis servit, ill e 
vere est nobilis. Prudent: peristepli: Romani martyris supplicium. 

Danies Florentinus optime tractat do vera nobilitate canzon 4. 

See Chaucer wife of Baths tale foL 36. and Roman t of the Rose 
hi 118. 

And our English herald GuiUha y though his office consist cheifly 
about titular dignity and gentry by birth, yet confesses, speaking of 
those whose first ancestors were raised for thire worth, that if they 
vant of thire linage or titular dignity and want thire vertues, they 
are but like base serving men who carry on thire slcevs the hi 
some noble family, yet are themselves but ignoble persons, p. A 1". 

Dukes, counts, Marquises ccc. were not hereditary at first, but 
only places of goverment, and office in the time of Charles the great. 
Girard. Hist. France. 1. 3. p. 163. L G. 316. [xxix.] and so con- 
tinu'd without much difference between gentlemen and nobl 
the time of Charles the Simple, about the year 900. when this 
corruption (for so the historian calls it, though himself B frencli 
lord) took beginning and rcceavM accomplishment afterward in 
the time of Hugh Capet, Girard. Hist. Franco. 1. 6. p. 316, tiki 
example from his usurpation, they made themselves proprietaries of 
those counties and dukedomes which they had as offices, not inhe- 
ritances, idem. I. f>. 329. 3150. except those who wore natural lords, 
as of Normandy, Toulouse, Flanders Aft. idem. p. 333 

Severitas 

morum severitas ad regnum aut impcrium captandum parum 
adjuvat. Sic Lambcrtus Severua integritatta cultor licenthmbua tui 
sseculi moribus foririidabilis Ftalisc principibua minimc aeceptua oil 
Cusmu in Berengario. p. * 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



39 



Rex 195 

De regibus Britannis inquit Gildas, ungebantui regcs, nen per 
deum. p. 119. contra quam nunc vulgus existimat, quoscunque 
scilicet reges dei unctos esse, [xxx.] 

Si in prineipatu politico aliqua est servitus, magis proprie servus^o. 2) 
est qui protest^ quam qui subest : August, de Civil. Dei. lib. 19.(21.4] 
cap. 14. 

Lenity of soveraigne princes towards (hose of their owtu 
offending them and soe in their danger,' or otherwise tJieir honourable 
prisoners : unto themselves both commendable and profi table. Exam j les 
of this. Bo&in: edit: Aug. Lond. I 2. c 5./>; 229. [Lord Preston's 
writing.] 

Come dipoi si comincib a fare il principc per successione, e non per • Shcm 
elettione sub it o commciarono gli heredi a degenerare da i loro an i •/./, 
e lasciando Vopere virtuose pensorono cite i prencipi non havessi ro a 
fare altro che superare gli altri di sontuosita e di lascivia e dogni 
ultra qualita delitiosa Machiavell: discors. L 1. c. 2. 

Si vedra ancora per la lettione dclV historia romana come si puo 
ordinare nn regno buono ; perche tutti gli impcradori che iucccderono 
alV imperio per herediia, eccetto Tito, furono cattivi, quelli die per 
adoitione, furono tutti buoni, come furono <j"< i. cinqut da ^\c>vaa 
Marco. Machiavell. discors: I. 1, c. 10. 

What Calvin sags of Magistrates a pointed fir the de ofAi 
people, and to restraint the insoleneie of Kings, at ia 1 1 the I jpl I W 
Lacedemonia, the Tribunes in Home, and the Demarche* in Aihen$ J 
that they ought to resist and impeach their Licentiousness' and cruety ; 
is not at all applicable to a right mouarchg where the life and h ROW 
of the Prince ought to be sacred, for hee epeahet of Aristocraiiq and 
popular Estates. Bodin: de Bepub: editi Aug: Londi L606, / 8. ft. 5. 
pag: 22-1. 

Martin Luther declared to the Proktttmi Princu M Germany thai 



* This entry is also in p, 109 of tin 1 MA •">< h ^HB MttCtUtd 



40 



A COMMON PLACE BOOK 



it icas not laivfidl for them to take up amies against Charles the -V 
Emp: pag: 225. 

The keeping of great Prince* 'prisoners dangerous, p: 220. 
— Examples of tins. — 

In liege qui recte regit, nccessaria sunt duo hcec, arma videlicet 
et Leges, quibus utrumque tempus bcllorum et pacis } recti 1 possii 
guhemari: utrumque enim istorum altering indiget aa.vilio, quo tam 
res militaris possit esse in tuto, quam ipsee Leges usu armorum et 
prcesidio possint esse servatcc, etc. Dracton L. 1°. de eonsuetud: tt 
Ijegg: Aug: cap. 1°: — [The last four entries are in Lord Presl 
writing.] 

197 De religionc qaatcmis ad llcmpcb: spectat 

Laudatissimos omnium inter mortale$ 9 eos esse qui vera Religion*: 
horninum mentes imbuunt, immo lis etiam laudafiores tjui km 
legibus Itcgna et Respub: quamvis egregie fundarunt MachiaveL 
discors I.. 1. c. 10. 
(25) Ecclesiastiei et politici rcgimiids confusionem (cum scilicet Di \ 
trains ministrum Ecclesue, minister Ecclesies magistratum ogit) et 
religioni et reipublicae pariter esse pernicio&arn ostendit Dantes i' • 
Hetruscus in purgatorio. Cant. 16. 

Solera Jioma, che'l ban mondo feo, 
Due soli haver ; chc Vuna. et Valtra strada 
facean vedere et del mondo, et di J ><<> 
ZtUU Valtro ha SpentO ; et c giunia la MMH&I 
Col pastorale ; et Vun et Valtro interne 
per viva forza inal convien chc vada : 
Perb che giunti Vun Valtro nov temc. 

et paulo post 
Di hoggimai c/ie la ('/;<". u «/• Kama 
per confondcr in sc due regginn nti 
cade iiel fangO } et sc brnlta f|" la soma. 

■ This rt Intortad by mfaftritti 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



41 



Opmiones hominum de Eeligionc, oportere in Repub: Yel sub Vid eL ta 
bonis principibus liberas esse; quos dum laudat Machiavellus inter dc 
caetera bona inquit, videbis sub iis tempora aurea. dove ciasc u no noa cogead*. 
pudtenereet difendere quella opinione che vuole discors. L l.'C. 10. 

Mahometan Religion nothing but policy. Bocalini, Cent:2 A i Adv: 
68 — pag: 280 — [Lord Preston's writing.] 

Farms Meipiib: Status 198 

Machiavellus longe prcefert Monarchies statum popularem, adductis Status 
rationibus hand inscitis toto capite. 58. I. 1 discors. et I. 3. c. 34. nbi 
dissent minus errare rempub: quam principcm in eligewhs magis- AoL 19^ 
tratibus suis ant ministris. 

Reducere rempub: ad ipsam gubemaudi originem pel bonas leges *) 
ferendo vel magistratas in ordinem redigendo eel summam ret urn ad 
arbitrium populi revocando scepe prodest. vide Machiavtl, dtecom 
h 3. c. l.ubi ait salubcrrimum id esse reipub: quemadmodum eorpoti 
misto etc, 

Gyntfcocratiam Reprehendit longa oratione ac rejedt Jacobus (21. •*) 
Kennedus Archiepiseopus Sanctce Andrea, Buchanan. HitL SocL 
Soet. L. 12, p. 40o7 Edit. Edinburg. 

Monorchia. .^9 
Monarchy is a Kind of Common weal c wherein the sov raiguc power 
lyeth in one onclg prince. Jlcc is a sovcraigue wkc c&mmemdetk ad 
others, and himsclfe can bee commanded of none. Dodtn: U I. 
Edit: Anglais Londini 1606. 

Hard for 2 princes to maintains equal tovereiynty together. 
Examples of this: \ r id: Bod'ni. /». 98. ROMul** <f Tetttm. Mi 
Aurclius: et yFAius Verus made eoreraignee by Antonimu Pum. 
Nulla fides Regni sociis, ommequt poMtai 
Impatient consortia $riL~ Lueftn Phetrmi. Uk — 

A Triarchie in a soveraignfie may bet firme but a ftilffftty not .<<>.-. 
Idem. 

■ Milton hn.s Mil-titutr.l MM f.-i l.M. 
CAMP. BOC. < ; 



42 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



Has the reason of the dicision of the Raman Empire into East 
and West ex eodem. — See other example* of thU. pag. 19S. — 

Examples of sovreigne princes marrying sovcraigne Queens, p. 199. 

An example of the good government of a state hy a Triarchy taken 
from Pompey, Ccesar, and Crassus.p: 199. — The like happened after 
the death of Ccesar in the Iriumvirate of Augustus, M. Antoidnu-. 
and Lepidus. 

It is not a monarchy where the sovreigntie is in 2 niens powers: 
neither can any government consist in that state if they fal at variance 
■betwixt themselves. Idem. 

A Sovereigne is either Lord of all, or a King, or a Tyrant: vid: 
plura ed: p. 

In a Royal Monarchy the subjects obey the Laws of a Monarch, 
the Monarch the Laics of nature, their subjects enjoying their natural 
Lihertie and proprietie of their good.?. 

The Lordly Monarchy is that where the Prince is become Lor of 
the goods and persons of his subjects by Law of armes and Lawfv&l 
warre* governing them as the master of a family doth his slaves. 
The Tyrannical monarchy is where the prince contemning the LAtfC og 
nature and of nations, injuriously abuses the pcrs<ois of his fiwsbome 
subjects, and their goods as his owne. the same difference is found m 
the Aristocrat iq and popular estate.-, p 200. 

The Lordly Monarchy first amongst men. — In Assyria undrr the 
power of Nimrod called a great Hunter, an JTebraismc for a great 
The'fe. Idem, 

JJefore his time icas noe soce/eigue. 

The Huns coining from the farthes pari* of JScythia brought the 
Lordly soveraignty of monarch* into Europe, p. 202.— n < • < . 
of Seigniories e. p. 

a Lordly Monarchy proved itoe '/'granny, p. 203. — StCWfefalM 
J J. Gentium uou vera natures. — J he apparil ex ex,mp!r J 
Patriarchs. — vid. efiam paa. 204: Sotam hanc . ." ct hanc . . .' 

1 A stgn like an Arabic 1 rercrsH is here 
Three lttters an<l a lino above fi»ll<»\U'«l l»y a different Mpn aie lui 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



43 



Videsis the definition of a Royal Monarq Cap. 3°. p. 204. 

Phnie Junior addresses Trojan the Emperor thus, Pruieipu 
sedem obtines, ne sit Domino locus, p. ead. iJc eis plura edd pan: — 

The true marke of a Royal Monarch pan: 205. 

Aristotle s definition of a King dangerous, pag: 206. 

Arisiotles opinion impugned that they are barbarous people whose 
Kings come by succession ,whilst at the same tune Alexander was a King 
by succession deriving himself from Hercules, Ihe Lacedemonian? 
allsoe from the stock of the Heraclvles, and others $c: pag 206. 

From the Asiatiqs Persians and Egyptians all humane learning 
derived, see p. 206 

5 sorts of Kings reckoned up by Aristotle — pag: 206. 

Hie power of Lacedemonian Kings described pag: 207. 

The difference of Monarch? not to bee gathered by (heir meanes of 
coming to the State, but by their meanes of governing the State, 
pag: ead 

Of the Roman Dictators p: ead. 

Antigonus the first of the successors of Alexander the Great who 
stiled himselfe King, p: 203. 

Dangerous to soveraignes to cause their sons, whilst they themselvet 
yet live to bee crowned Kings ivith them except in elective kingdotnts. 
Examples of it. p. 209. 

Dangerous allsoe to the people least their right of electing ehomld 
soe passe into the form of succession. }>ag: 210. ['I lie whole ol p. 
199 is in Lord Preston's writing.] 

Ty renin us. 200 

Tyrant, this word derived from the Grcekes was of the propriety 
thereof Honourable, and in auncient time 'signified no Other thing then 
a Prince who without ihe consent of the people, had bg force rr fraud 
possessed himselfe of the state; and of a Companion male h 
their master: whom they called a Tyrant, although he were a right ICtM 

andjust Prince. Bodinue. 2° </<• Rcjmb: EdikAmg: Con fc A 1006. 
pag: 210. cap: 4". 



44 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



The best King described pag: 211 a . 

The greatest difference betwixt a King and a Tyrant, given page 
. 212. ' " " % 1 

Tyrants' slaine by effeminate and weahe persons, and never safe: 
fag: 21.1 

Qui plura de Tyrannis rider e relit, eonsulat vitas Timolconis et 
Arati a Phitarclw conscripAas. 

Ti/rants allwayes infamous and detested, Tormented with feare of 
future infamie. Therefore Nero wished that when hee dyed, nay 
whilst hee lived, all the world might bee consumed with fire. For the 
cause Demetrius Polyorcetes to gratifie the Athenians undertooke a 
warre for the defence of their liberties that hee might bee honoured 
by their icritings after his death. Several examples of Tyrants 
p: 214. 

Tyrants oftentimes hasten their owne death. Examples of this, 
pay: eddem. 

The happy Estate of a royal Prince. 215. 

Scipio Affricanus worthily praysed edd: pay: 

Menander King of the Bactrians worthily lov' d of his subjects, 
pag: edd: 

Plinie in his Panegyrical Oration of Trajan tin* Emperour COn- 
cludeth his period, thus; That nothing greater or better could be 
wisKd for to the Commonweale then that the immortal Gods would 
imitate the Life of Trajan. This excessive prayss though it tavowrt 
of impietic yet procecdeth from the zeals of a most famous man 
towards his most excellent prince. — At his goring out and coming in 
all Temples were filled for Ms wellfarc, and hee hhneefft used to 
pray and covenant with the Gods — That they should keep and pr$m H 
him, if they saw it to bee for the good of the Commonweal*, fag: 
edd. 

Agcsilaus King of Sparta was fined by the Ephori/br having 
alone robbed the hearts, and gained the lofH of all the Citisw* to him: 
pag: edd. 

Aristides mr named the Just^ fx ttid* 



V 



OF JOHN MILTOX 



45 



Pkalaris Busiris Nero, and Caligula, horrid tyrants. p: edd. 

Necessary severity not to bee accounted Tyrannie in a sovereign? 
Pi^ince but to be much commended in him. p: 116. — This position is 
illustrated by the -example of Cosmo di Mcdices when he first iooke 
upon him the Dukedom of Florence, p: edcL 

Severitie in a Prince more ivholesomc for a Commonweale than 
Lenity. Domitian an example of this. Ncrva his successor an 
example of Lenity. Cicero calleth the Licentious Libertie of the 
furious people meer Tyrannic, pag: edd. 

Div&t's causes inducing Princes to Tyrannic, pag: 217. 

That a craftie and subtle man is a good King, proved, pag: cad. — 
The exampAes of this Charles the Simple 7 or Charles doe nothing oj 
France, and the contrary effects of Francis the 1st his Governement, 
p: edd. — The lenity and immoderate Bounty of Henry the 2d most 
hurifull to France pag: edd. 

Pertinax his bounty and TIeliogabalus his youthfullnesse ollmost 
ruined the Roman Empire p; 218. 

The" Emper ours Severus of Afvike and Alexander Severus of Syria 
by severity reestablish' y d the same p: edd. 

Charles King of Navarre the most wicked King of his time, pag: 
edd. 

Murthers even of evil and Tyrannical princes, not to be rewarded 
but severely pinrisltcd. pag. 226. a 

Severus the Emperor put to death all the murt.hr vers of Tcrtinax. 
(Con s 1 1 le He rod ia num). 

Vitellius did soe allsoe with the murthsrers of (talba. vi<l. alia 
exemplarp: eddem. [The whole of p. 200 is m Lord Preston* $ writing."] 



Manarcfria, 

Vid: Boccalini, Cent: 2 d \ Advertising the 6*, pag: 176. Excellent 
rules for monarchs.— pag: 181. [Lord Preston's writing.] 



• A ;»kr in tlir print Enf tt& 



46 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



202 Athens. 

Hee who doubt eth whither there lee a God or not is not to be con- 
futed with arguments but with severe punishments to bee chastized. 
Rodin: Edit: Any, I 2. c. 2. de Repub: p. 224. [Lonl Preston's 
writing, j 

203 Be Aristocratia. 

Vid: Trojo.no Boccalhii Advcrtisenv* from Parnassus. Cent: 2'- 
Adv: 6 ta , p. 176. [Lord Preston's writing.] 

204 Judex et Judicium. 

Criminatio, et misericordia et Ira et hujusmodi animi perturba- 
tiones non de re sunt sed ad Judicem. Quod si in omnibus Judiciis 
Tmn. 2 ,!o eveniret, quemadmodum in nonnxdlis etiam nunc evenit civitatibus, 
~~ ((7 't : mazi77ie vero in iis qucv bene sunt institutes, nihil haberent quod 

1G21>. dicerent. Otnues euim partim arbitrantur sic byes cavere : partbn 

hoc institution fetinent, et prohibent e.vij'a rem dieere, ut etiam in 
AreopogOj recte sic statuetttes. iVbai enim oportet Judicem pet vi rtt - , 
od Tram excitando, vel invidiam , vcl misericord in m : quia id simile 
est oc si quis qua usurus est rec/ula cam reddat pcrversam. Aristot: 
L. 1° Art: Met: cap: V. 

Vide quce Judici in Judicio sunt rclinquenda. Eod: Cap: poo: 
513. [This page is Lord Preston's -writing.] 

205 Democrclio. 

Boccalini Cent. 2 do Adv: 6 ta pag: 176. [Lord Preston's writing.] 

220 Census el Vectigal. 

Foderum, parata, et mansionaticum tributa erant a Cafolo RiagHO 
Italis imposita quibus ille jus suum in cos quoddan BignifidUl volr.it. 
vide S'ujon: reg: Ital: 1. 7. 175. p. hino fortaiM rtgibufl Angliaa qua> 
eumque per loea ita faeientibus tributuin ojusmodi solvit nr. [Small 
writing* | 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



47 



Fifteens and subsidies what they arc see Camden. Elizab. 
p. 80. 

the cruel tribute exacted by Hardiknut to be given to his ship- ^ e j| Sa £?jf Ml t 

men stow speaks of, and his end was answerable, [xxxi.] Sto. 94. wa£ 

read also the storie how K Ed. Confessor saw the devili dauncing" J° ]j f c ; (!l v .^"' 1 

c by Godwin on 

on the heap of monie exacted from his subjects, wheron he sent all purpose to 
back to the owners. Sto. p. 95. against unjust exactions with intent h^^^^ 11 
to enrich the K's coffers Canutus the dane inveighs. Speed, in his & e people, 
life, [xxxii.] 

and Harold barefoot by exacting ship monie lost his subjects love. 
Speed, in his life. 

Feeter pence ordaind to be given to the Fope by Inas the west- Holinshed. 
saxon the ignominious price of our damnation, vide leges. an[d] " 6 ' °" l ' 
disanulFd by the noble Edward. 3. stow. an. 39. but after by others 
permitted. Holinsh. p. 397 till Hen. 8. 

K. John lost his subjects love by taxing and powling them. 

Holinsh. p. 161. and the black prince lost the love and obedience 

of his subjects in Guien by raising fuage. Holinsh. p. 400. cv_c. 

Kich. 2. a farmer of his kingdom. Ilolin. 49G. 

promooters and exacters wovthyly punisht in beginning Hen. 8. seealsothe 
- i i i i it* modcTotMtn 

an. 1. Sto. a good course also taken by Hen. 3 d to the same eliect f Eli 

wherby punishing those that had bin fraudulent under him in his j ; 

offices by fines and accounts taken of them, he spar'd his honest 

subjects of a subsidie. Holinsh. p. 215. 

Commissions out of Parliament devisfd by Wolsey demanding 

the sixt of every mans goods Holinsh. p. 891. without the Icnow- 

le fr e of the K. which caus'd divers commotions the which the K. 

o 

knowing the cause therof instantly pardon'd, utterly disavowing the 
unlawfull oppression of his commons. 

Tributum a mcretricibus corradi solitum, quod chrysnrgurum 
vocabatur, pneclaro consilio, et commento sustulil Anastasius imp. 
ut fuse narrat Euagrius 1. 3. hist: Fork. c. S9. [Small writing.] 

That no king or prince hath power to raise a penny on hia 
subjects Without their consent CominCS a great statesman and 



48 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



courtier affirms, and answers the common objections that the cause 
may be suddain, and secret. Memoires 5. L p. 403 &c. 

Subsidies granted with condition not to be spent at the pleasure 
of the prince but by order and appointment of certain Lds appointed 
by the parlament, by them to be reccav'd and kept. Rich 2. 
ami in other Holinsh. 452. which also K. James of his own accord offer'd 

1)11 (r CS 

to the parlament in thire aids to be gather'd for recovery of the 
palatinat. Chesne. Hist, D* Angle, p. 1 178. 1179. 
quo&vis marc solitos enim ev^rjfieiaOat imperatores Constantini urbis a navibus 
non libernm per fauces Ponti pnrtereuntibus testatur Gregovas Nicephorus 1. 5. 
c. 3. [Small writing.] 

what the r even news of the custom house were to Q. Eliz. see 
vide Rex Camel. Eliz. vol. 2. p. 21. 

Antrlia). 1SG. :, r , . 4 . , 

Moderation in exactions, or subsidies gams more then rigor, seen 

in the Londoners forwardnes Sto. Eliz. in 88. and by the subsidies 

granted Camden, p. 00. vol. 2. et 56. 

populus bene nummatus quictior, interest -ergo regis ut no popu- 

lum exactionibus ad paupcrtatcm rcdigat quandoquidem inopia si qua 

res alia Anglos in rebellionem praecipitat ut ait inter alios Camden. 

Eliz. vol. 2. p. 224. 



221 llapina sen extorsio pub. vide Papa 42 in hidice altero." 

William Rufus an extreme powlcr of his subjects Insomuch that 
he durst compel I certain converted Jews to forsake the Faith of 
Christ beeing brib'd to that purpose by oilier Jews with a sumtne 
of mony. but see the wise and godly an? wove of a com 
Jew to him wherwith he was confounded. Holinsh. p, 27. 

Kins Ui. 1. to maintain hifl wans unholilic in the holv land 
p. 119. 120. and p. 143. Ml. other devises p. 1 after his comming 
home, besides that of the scale lost with prsetence of necessity V 
again, this devise of a new scale to bring in new fees 11 a, ;> uls 



• This clearly refers to uiotUcc Cotnttoupiact Book 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



49 



practised a trick more befitting a cheater then a K. for which he is Holinsh. 
boldly reproved of his nobles p. 240. feins also a feare of warr in p ; ' " 
Gascoine from the Castilians 249. and through his whole reigne an 
improvident spender, and a shamlesse exactor. 253. another shift. 
251 : 253. 

Richard. 2. a continual poller, see 185 of this table, also' Holinsh. 
496. Henry the 7th not free of this fault in his latter days. Holinsh. 
791. by Empston and Dudly. p. 794. His policic by shew- of Sjwd 7 13. 
warrs to raise monie. Henry the 8 th lesse touch't with this fault 
then his predecessors disclaiming like a noble prince the exactions 
devis'd by Wolsey without his privity. Holinsh. p. 892. 

Emston and Dudly see Speed, p. 762. thire deaths. Speed. 766. 

a catalogue of the supply's, exactions, and wastings of Hen. 3. Hen. 3. 
Speed, p. 537. ending in a most beggerly humor of inviting him- 
self to feast on others cost, where to his diet he must be presented 
and his queen, and son with guifts if fclie^ would please him. 
Speed, p. 540. 

by a noble ladie countess of Arundel gravely reproov'd Speed. 
p. 542. 

Hen. 7 making of intendments for just and necessary wans and 
therupon demaunding and obtaining great summs of his subjects, 
with a small parts thcrof llorisht over a seeming preparation, and 
.the remainder therof (peace insewing which he always foreknew .y. ; . ; : 
how to bring about) was clearly his own without account, an un- 
kinglik paltering wch should be provided against in such cases by 
parlamcnt. 

Commotions for these reasons want not a stout captain as a 
plebeian wittily answerd the duke of norfolk (sent againt the 
commons in Suffolk and asking that who was thire captain) that 
Poverty was thire captain with his cozin Necessity. / Jolin. p. 891. 
Hen. 8. 



CAMP. SOC. 



50 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



230 Pestilentia. 

pestilent: divinitus immissa temporibus Justiniani in qua immanes 
quoedam daemonum forma? in obvios quosque grassafttium appare- 
bant, qui etiain per soranum nonnullis dicerent se quoque esse eorum 
in numero qui essent morituri hac peste. Procop: persic: I. 2. 
[Small writing.] 

240 Gymnastica. 

Giostro et \ u &{ equestres a latinis inventi quorum le^es et morem describit 

lonicamento , * , x ° , , , 

JNiccph. liregoras. 1. 10. c. irepi yeweews rov pacriKeco*; lwavvov rov 

veov. eos ludos Sabaudi nobiles prim ii m Grrecos docuerunt ut tes- 
tator Caiitacuzenus I. 1. c. 42. 

Damnantur ab Innocentio Pontifice Sigon : I. ll.deregn. Ital: 
273. et ab Eugenio. p. 283. [All small writing.] 

241 Spectacula. 

Tertullmntts in co libro quem de spectaculis inscripsit damnat 
eorum usum et Christianis occludit, nec verb tantum argumentis 
agit (qua3 solos ethnicos ludos con vel hint) ut cauti et prudentis 
Christiani animum religione obstringere debuerit, quo minus poema 
aliquod dramaticum a poeta non imperito concinnatum spcctare 
ausit. illud tarn en optime facit in cpilogo libri ut mentem Christiani 
ad mcliora h. e. divina et celestia spectacula (qua; tot, et tanta homo 
Christianus an'nno pra:cipere potest de adventu Christi de future 
judicio dcnsis coloribus contortis incitaverit. cundein prorsus lapidcm 
volvit Cjiprianus sen quis alius libro cadcm de re compo^ito torn. 3. 
Et Lactantius 1. G. c. 20. argumentis nihiio firmioribus rem scenicam 
universam in vitio ponit. nec semel quidem CQgitasse videtur, coi- 
ruptelas quidem theatricas mcrito tolli debcre, omnem autem idcirco 
rerum dramaticarum usum pcnitu aboleri nihil necesse esse, ixnmo 
potius nimis insulsum esset quid cnim in tola philoso^htd aut 
gravius aut Banctius aut sublimit trngoedia recte coustitutl quid 
utilius ad humanee v'\t:v casus et conversiones uno intuitu spcctandos? 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



51 



idem etiam capite sequenti totam artem mnsicam videtur c medio 
sublatam velle. 

De discipline militari - 242 

. , . re3 nautica 

Edgar s noble custome to defend tlie coast with his yearly navie. 

[xxxiii.] K. Ed. the 3. commandment for the exercise of arms in 

every shire. Stow Ed. 3. an. reg. 17. 

Q. Elizabeths excellent care to furnish her fleet with implements 
out [of] her own country. Camd. 70. 

Si magistratus duci exercitus eruptionem, aut pugnam certo cum 
periculo omnium imperabit videtur ex officio imperatorio esse sen- 
tentiam suam explicare, sin magistratus belli expers obstinatius in- 
stabit, non tamen imperatori honorificum est suum exercitum unius 
vel etiam populi ob inscitiam, et pertinaciam perdere exemplum 
vide in Malatesta qui dictatori Florcntino perniciosa suadenti parere 
noluit Jovius. 1. 29. p. 170. &c. 

justice and abstaining from spoile in the armie of Hen. 5. Holinsfu 
p. 552. and the benefit therof. ibid, et 5G0. 

Selymi milites etiam post victoriam adco sevcris discipline legibus 
in officio permansere, at in fertilissimo autumno horti sine custodibus 
tuto relinquerentur. Jovius 1. 17. 359. 

Militum libidini obtemperare duces non debere, qui ad verum 
militise decus adspirent, et a justa generosi animi probitate famam 
quosrant latrocinantiumque militum inimanitatem abominentur. et 
reliqua apud Jovium. 1. 12. qure Prosper Columna ad Bcrgomum in 
castris egregic concionatur. 

the vantgard due to the Kentish men by ancient custome. Spued, 
in Harold, p. 416. 

Avaritia quantum in hello noceat. vide Avaritia. 

Quoniam populum universum in armis exerceri ad scditioncs et 
tumultus periculosum est idcirco dclectos quosdam fide, et moribua excipiui tor 
per singulus provincias paucoS privilegiis quibusdam miiiUlibus [[J^tS* *' 
ornatos ad anna tractauda instructos es.-e oportore monet SetelL dc iafnu 
repub. -Gallia? 1. 2. 



52 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



the English that of Harold was wrought with gold and precious stones in 
standard. f QTm of aR arinec | man> Speed, p. 435. hist. Edward 3 at Cressy 
erected his standard of the dragons gules Speed, p. 590. 

of Castles whether profitable in England see Ilolinshed descnpt. 
of England 2 hook. c. 14. 

And of fortresses in generall. Che le fortezze generalmente sono 
molto piu dannose die utili discorre MacMavell: discors: I. 2. c. 24. 
[By the same hand as the Note from Macchiavelli, p. 195. See 
Autotype.] 

~ Quag regiones aut provincial ad fines regni sitaj sunt, iis non 
solum omnibus armorum usus et assidua exercitatio permittenda est 
sed etiam pnemiis et immunitatibus ad bellicas artes incitandi sunt. 
Sessel. de repub. Gallise. 
- . The office of Knighthood Harding sets out in Arturs round table 

to use thire bodies to defend where law would not redresse. Cronicle 
in Arture. 

Provision for souldiers after the warrs to be considered. Spenser 

dialogue of Ireland from p. 84. ccc. 
(13. l k 2) Meliusne sit inferre helium an expectare Jwstem disputat Alachia- 

vellus discors. I. 2. c. 12. 
Am. 195, Peditum Robur loupe plus in hello valere quam eguitum disserii 

§ 4 k 5 ' Machiavellus Discors: I 2. c. 18. 



243 Dc Bello 

not to be furnislit out by rapine and pilling the people, as that 
voiage of R. the first to the holie land most unholily set out with 
monie dishonorably and impiously got. see JJolinsh. I\. 1. p. 119. 
120. 

of holy wane as they call it. to fight with Turks, and Saracens. 
See Gower. 1. 4. fol. 61, 72. 

Militia mercenaria qua quis moreede conduct us cuilibel opera fert, 
damnatur, a Zuinglio. Sleidan, lib. 3. p. :U'>. et 1. 4. 60, et a repub 
Bernensi. Sleidan. L G. p. 89* 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



53 



victoria non in viribus aut peritia militari sita est, sed ut, qui 
bellum susoipit, denm propitium habeat. praeclare itaque Trajanus 
dux ad Yalentem imperatorem qui eum dictis incessemt eoquod 
contra Gothos missus cum exercitu male pugnasset. ouk iyco, inquit, 
co {3aai\ev rjTTr)/j.,at. tu autem victoriam prodidisti qui deo bellum / 
infers, nam Arrianus erat Yalens. Theodorit. hist. 1. 4. c. 29. vide 
et. c. 30. 

moderate and Christian demeanour after victory see in Hen. 5. 
after the winning of Harflew, 

Divitias esse belli nervos negat Macldavellus et vulgi ea de re0 3 - 1Sc2) 
opinionem refellit. discors: I. 2. c. 10. 

Non esse cujusvis Reipub fines imperii bello proferre aliasque 
gentes in suam ditionem redigere. immo periculosum esse nisi et 
ilia respub: probe instituta sit et illi novi imperii acquisitio reete 
administretur, prudenter ostendit Macliiavellus discorsi 1. 2. c: 19: 
[Doubtful] 

De bello Civili 244 

the danger of calling in forraine aids besides the stone of the 
Saxons and Danes comming in, is evident by the purpose of Lewis 
reveal'd by the Count of Mclun to the Barons of England. Jfol'msJi. 
p. 193. also by his and his Frenchmens carriage toward the English. 
Holinsh. p. 197. 198. 

Germani principes Caisari fidem, officiumquc renunciant ivligionis 
ergo quam ille evertere conatus est. vide Sicilian. 1. 17. p. 296. &c. vhled< 
[xxxiv.J 

et Galli protestantes de scntcntia suorum ministrorum &c. vide 
Concil Trident, p. 408. Thuanus. lust. 1. 24. p. 732. et Jurisconsul- 
toruin, et Theologorum. 

et Scoti ccclesia: reformatores, Thuan. hist. 1. 21. p. 647, 
erat et IWagdeburgiae obsidionis tempore scriptus liber, ct in 
Gallia denuo editus an. 1574 multis rationibus et exemplis ftmpli- 
ficatus, in quo lice re ostenditur subditis vim etinm a mngistmtibua 
extra leges illatam vi repellere. Thuan. hist 1. <~>7 p. 909, 



54 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



Bcllum non religionis causa, cuiquam inferre se Tyranni simulant, 
vide Kcclesia. sed in quosdam sub eo obtentu sibi rebelles. Carolus 5 tus multas 
protestantium civitates his insidiis deeepit, atque ab armis continuit. 
Hist Concil Trident 1. 2. p. 179. [xxxv.] 

lis qui rcligionis causa se armis defendimt multi se aliis de causis 
non optimis callide se adjungunt Concil Trident, p. 408. 



245 De Feeder atis 

Our league and union with the Scots a thing most profitable, 
and naturall ever by the Pope sought to be hinderd. See Ascams 
Toxophilus 1. 1, p. 38. 

by the Cardinal of Scotland. Speed, p. 794. 

do Feed ere cum pi ote.stantibus quibusvis non omnia speranda. ut 
* jivu-haven. c ^ e rebus qua? ad* Franciscopolim transacta sunt compertum 
est. Camden. Elizab. 82. et passim cum Anglis astute actum qui 
Henrico 4 t0 suppetias tulerunt, periculis maximis objecti, hue illue 
raptati, vide ubi Essexius ad liothomagum castra ponit, et Norrisius 
in Britannia. Cam* vol. 2. 49. 50. sed et prioribus expeditionibus 
vidcrc c§t, ex quo rex ille Anglorum auxilia pctiit. apud Camden. 
et vol. 2 p. Gl. G4. G5. 77. 79. 89. 90. 

Ilollandi operam Anglis pulchram navant pontificiorum Hispa- 
norum classe profligate quae Anglorum ad res turbandas erat ab 
Albano instrueta. Camden. Eliz. p. 232. Arausionensis consilia 
Joannis Austriaci de invadenda Anglia detegit Elizabeths, quk 
vixdum aliquid de istac re presenserat. Cam. Eliz. 267. vide et 
Camden, p. 274 Elizab. 

Ed. G. aids the protectants abroad Hat/ward. Ed. G. p. 115. 
(13. 1) Che si possa jldare piu d y una COnfed 'erat ion e o lean fat fa eon una 

repubn ehc di quella fa/fa eon zin j'}-i?ieipe dimostra Mdcchiavell; 
di$Gors. I: I. e. 59. 



Or JOHN MILTON. 



50 



De Seditione vide Idololatria. a et Ecclesia. a et bello 246 

civili 

Contra eos qui rem evangelicam per sedition em et tumultum pro- 
movere aggrediuntur, pulchre Lutherus apud Sleldan. p. 69. 1. 5. 

Contra omnem seditionem sanctissime et prudentissirne turn ad 
plebem turn ad magistratum scribit Lutlierus uti causas pariter sedi- 
tionis recidant. b illi patienter expectando, et arbitris dilectis rem 
pacate transigendo. magistratus opprimere expilare, divexare crude- 
liter populum tandem si desinat. Sleldan. 1. 5. p. 71. &e. 

Csesar protestantium proeeres se defendentes multis criminibus 
onerat rebcllione scil. et magistratus contemptu. &c Sleldan. L 17. 
292. 293. &c. ut hodie fit. [xxxvi.] 

Popull tumultus llbertatls recuperanda>. occaslo scape fuit, idedqm 
nec reprehend endl^ quia justas oh causas et queer elas pherunque fnud. 
teste Machlavello. Io dlco, che coloro eke dannono i tumulii tra i 
nobili et la plebc, ml par che biasimino quelle cose che furono prima 
caglone dl tencre libera Roma, perche buone leggi nascevana da quel 
tumultij $c. discoid. I. 1. c. 4. 

De urbe obsiclenda et obscssa 247 

Quo modo Hicardus Brixiam undique oppugnatam defender! t 
paucis militibus contra duos excrcitus vide Jovlum 1. 18. p. 319/ 

Quo modo Vcronam M. Antonius Columna adversus Gallos et 
Venetos defendcrit vide Jovlum lib. 18. 397. &c. 

Tyranaus. 248 

Utrum llceat a tyranno deficere. Rlnaldo Conte de Caserta havendo (21. 10) 
Manfredi re dl jS T apoll comcsso adulterlo con la mOglia del Conte, 
■mando a Roma al papa e al Re Carlo (Cangioia che vl furono insieme, 

a These titles are not in the volume. 

b The MS. has tQscribafitcidant, the scribant being deleted; hut aver the i ;i 
small t has hcen placed. 

A misprint in the printed volume cited; it should be p. 894, 



56 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



un suo amico che proponesse avanti al Collegio, s'era lecito ad un 
vassallo in tal caso risentirsi del suo re e mancargli di fede ; U die 
fu deciso e da cavaglieri e da letterati, die come il vasallo e teuuto 
spendere la vita e l l sangue per lo re suo, cosl a Vincontro il buon re 
e tenuto cVosservare leanza col vassallo t e offendend.olo in cosl atroce- 
Ingiuria, e lecito al vassallo mancargli di fede ; p>erche in ted caso il 
re perde il iitulo di re, e si veste il nome di tiranno. Angelo di Cos- 
tanzo. histor. di napoli I. 1. p. 16. 

Whither it be lawfull to lay violent hands upon a Tyrant; and 
after Ids death to disanul all his acts, decrees, and laws. Vid. Bodiu: 
de Bepub: Edit; Aug; Lend; A° 1606. cap: 5°: lib: 2: pag: 218.— 

A Tyrant defined pag: edd. — 

If a subject will invade or take upon [Aim] the State of a King by 
any means whatsoever bee hee good or bad the laics of God and man 
pronounce it lawfull to kill him p. 219. 

The Valerian Law published at the request of Pub. Valerius Pub- 
licola and iddch makes it lawfull for any one to kill a Tyrant, and 
after the fact to bee tryed, and the Law of Solon which forbids the 
killing of a Tyrant without form of Justice compared, pag: edd. — 

Whether a lawfull Prince Tyrannizing may of Ids subjects be law- 
fully slaine or not. It is lawfull to slay him who is not absolute 
soveraign y but him who is it is not. p. 212. 

A Prince Tyrannizing may by another strange Prince be lawfull'/ 
slaine. jk 220. examples of this Hercules Moses e]-c. 

That it is not lawful for subjects either by way of fact or Justice to 
attempt anything against the honour Life or dignity of their soveraian 
prince, bee [he] never soe evil or wicket, proved p: edd cm. 

'Treason the thoughts of it punish 1 d with death. — Examples out 
of sacred and prof ane story, pag: 22,*>. — examples of 2 French Gen- 
tlemen; of NdbuchodonosoT) and Soul, Jehu 224. 

The Essei the most learned man amongst the Jews ( their name 
imports the true execution of the Law of God) their opinion of the 
sacrcdness of Soveraignes. p. 224. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



57 



Diogenes the Cyniq, his discourse to JJionysius the younger then 
living in exile at Corinth ; with the miserable condition of Tyrant 
whilst hee lives described, p, 226. 

The policie of some Tyrants to avert from themselves the peoples 
rage, exemplified in severed persons, p: 226. 

If the conspirators begin their fury at the person of the Tyrant, 
then his whole fam ily is usually rooted out. p. edd. 

Cicero questions whither a good man ought to come into the Councel 
of a Tyrant consulting even of good and profitable matters, f p. 227. 
— The. question solved, p. e\_d]d. 

That not only the aood acts and, decrees of Tyrants, but even their 
Evil acts and decrees alsoe are oftentimes of necessity after their deaths 
to bee retained in a Commonweale. pag. 227 . 

It is the opinion of lawyers that the successouvs of Tyrants are 
bound to all their predecessors have justly promised or done, but not 
to the rest, p: edd. — 

Constantine the Emperour abrogated such things as Lycinius the 
Tyrant had unjustly decreed, but confirmed the rest. The like was 
done by Theodosius the younger and Arcadius the Emperours after 
the death of the Tyrant Maximus by their liands. 

Quce Tyrannus contra jus rescripsit noil valcre preecipimits : legi- 
timis ejus rescriptis non impugnandis. pag: eddem. [All in this page 
except the first entry is Lord Preston's writing.] 

Dc re nauticd el naufragiis. De UUoribus etiam el mart. 249 

Quid genus hoc hominum, quidce hutte tain barbara moron 
Permittit patria ? hospitio prohibemur arena* 

slJncid. 1. /. [540]. 
Gripus the fisherman and Truchalio the slave a* they were brought 
upon the stage by Plautus quarelling about a bagge found in the sea. 
Gr. Mare quidem commune certo *st omnibus. Tr. Assentio, 
Qui minks kunc communcm mild quceso oportet esse vidulum ? In 
mari inventum est. Commune est. In Rudente. Act: A , 
CAM D. SOC. 1 



58 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



Latojia alloquens Rusticos Lycios sic ait: — apv.d Ovid: Meiam: 
lib. G° 

Quid proh.ibetis aguas? Usus communis Aquarian est. 
Nec solem propriiun Katura, nec Aera fecit, 
Nec tenues undas. In publico munera veni. 
— — — Littusque rpgamus 

Innocuum et cunciis ttndamgue auramque potentem. 

JEneid. I 7. [229]. 
Phoenicides etiam ajntd Athen<zum Dipnosop>h: S ait: 
Trjv fiev Od\acr r L cr~^av koivtjv eivai. [All the above and the second 
heading at the top of the page are Lord Preston's writing.] 
) The evil custom in England, of sciseing all shipwrecks as forfeit 
to the Lord of the Afamwr^ or the inhabitants of that shoar, where the 
ship was wrackty was also among the Greeks of Constantinople, hut' 
condemn d and forbidden by a severe edict of Andronicus Comnauu 
the Empcrour, though otherwise a most cruell tyrant. See Nicetaa 
Choniates in his life, page 209 t!l of his history. Edit: Paris. foL 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



59 



malum morale 4 
de viro bono 5. 
De viriutc. 6. 
Ayaritia 12 
Gula 13-7 
Libido 1 4 
Castitas 15. 
Ebrietas 17 

De morte spontanea 16. 
De fortitudine 18. 
De Dnellis 19. 
De morte 20. 

De scientia literarum. 53. 54. 
De curiositate. 55 
De Poetica 57. 
Epitaplaa 58. 



INDEX ETHICUS p. 1. 

De musica. 61. 
De Iiheioricd. 50 
Consultatio. 67 
Iffnavia 70 



De mendacia 7 1 . 

De furto 72. 

De fide servanda 73. 

De Justitiu. et contra. 74. 

De adulatione 75 

De reprebensione 7G 

De maledicentid. 11 

De voluniate 78. 

Sindercsis 79. 

Ratio 80. 

Conscieniia 81. 

JE quit as 82 



OECON'OMiCUS p. 101 



De victu 105. ubi de ciborum usu. 
De cultu corporis 10G 
matrimonium 109. 114 
De educandis liberis 1 1 1 
De Divortio 112. 116 
Concubinatus 110 



De Servis 113. 
Adnlterium 115 
Divitia. 11S 

Paupertas 150. 
Eleemosyoee. 151. 
de us r.ra 160 



GO 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



POLITIC US p. 177. 



Respublica. 177. 
Amor in patriam 178. 
Leges. 179. 1S9. 
mores gentium 180 
I)e dispensationibus sive indulgentiis 
189 

Bex 181. 182. 186. 195. 
sufrditus 183. 

Lenitas 184. ubi de libris prohibitis 

TyrannuslS5. 248. 200. 

Aulici 187. 

Consiliarii 1 87 

Astutia Politica 188. 

nobilitas 191 

Libertas 183. 190. 

Severitas. 193. 

Servitus 190 

De Beliijione quatenus ad rcmpul. 

special. 197. 
Vavius rcipub. Status. 198 



Census et Tectigal. 220 ubi de niari 

libero an non 
Extortio publica. 221.— 
MonarcJua.—ldd. 200. 201. 
De atheis tractandis in JRepullica. 202 : 
De Arktocratia. 203. 
Judex et Judicium 201 
Democratia, 205, 
Pestilentia 230 
Gymnastica 240. 
Spectacula 241. 
Disciplina militaris 242 
De bello. 243 
De bcllo civili 244. 
De fcederatis 245 
De seditione 246 

De urbe obsidenda et obsessa 247. 
De re nauticd et navfragiis. 249 
De Uttoribus et mari sensu politico: 
249 



OF JOHN- MILTON. 



61 



PROLUSION AND VERSES PRESUMED TO BE BY 
JOHN MILTON. 



Mane citus lect^jm fuge. 

Tritum est vetustate proverbium. dilueulo surgcre saluberrimura est nec 
sane minus veruni qnam antiquum: etenim si ordine supputare conabor 
liujus rei singulas utilitntes opus ardui laboris obire videbor: surge igitur, 
surge deses nec semper teneai te mollis lectus, nescis quot oblectamenta 
praabet aurora. Oculos delectare cupis? aspiee soleni purpureo colore 
oricnteni, ccelum puruin, et salubre, herfoescentem agrorum viriditatem, 
florum omnium varietatem. Aures juyare velis? audi argutos auvium 
concentus et leves apum susurros : naiibus placebis ? non satiari possis 
suavitate odorum qui e floribus efflantur. Quod si haec non arrident, 
rationem salutis tuaa aliquantuliim qua?so ducas ; quippc summo mane 
cubitu surgere ad firmam corporis yaletudinem non parum conducit studijs 
verb aptissimum est tunc enim in numerato habes ingenium Praterea 
boni regis est non somno immodico corpus saginare et vitam feriatam et 
laboris vacuam transigere, at reipublicre cum nocte turn die consulere ut 
argute hortatur Theocritus 

Et apud Homerum sic Somnus olloquitur Agamemnonem 
Ei/£e<s A'rpeos vie baitypoi'os t7TTrobuj,ioio 

Quam ob causam fabulantur poeta> Tithonum, et Cephftluru Aurora ainasios 
fuisse? nimirura quod somni parcissimi fuere, et relicto cubili agros pictos 
et herbis multicoloribus yestitos obire soliti sunt. !Sod at somnolentiam 
radicitus extirparem ut nullum Bius vestigium rclinquerem, incommoda 



G2 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



immmera qua 1 - ab ilia omnibus manant nudare aggrediar. haac ingeniuni 
vegetnm hebctat, et obtundit et memorial quam plurimum officit ; ecquid 
turpius esse possit quam in multum diem stertere et maximam vitse tuge 
partem morti tanquam sacrare ? At tu qui summee rei praxes tuum est 
potissimum yigilias agere et somnum arctiorem obrepentem penitus dis- 
cutere. multi enim, hostes somno gravi pressos et quasi sepultos adorti 
occisionc occiderunt et tantam strageni ediderunt ut ant visu aut auditu 
miserabile sit. Millia liujusmodi exenipla, qua3 inexhausto stylo narrare 
potui, mihi suppeditautur. At si Asianam illam exuberantiam, irnitabor, 
profectb vereor ne miseros auditores taedio enecabo. 



Carmina Elegiaca. 

Surge, age surge, leves, jam convenit, excute sonmos, 

Lux oritur, tepidi fulcra relinque tori 
Jam canit excubitor gallus pr&muncius ales 

Solis et invigilans ad sua quemque vocat 
Flammiger Eois Titan caput exerit undis o 

Et spargit nitidum lasta per' arva jubar 
Daulias argutum modulatur ab ilicc carmen 

Edit et excultos mitis alauda modos 
Jam rosa fragrantes spirat silvestris odores 

Jam redolent yiolce luxuriatque seges 
Ecce novo campos zephyritis gramme Tescit 

Fertilis, et vitreo rore madescit humus 
Scgnes inveuias molli vix talia lecto 

Cum preniat imbellis lumina fessa sopor 
Ulic languentes abrumpunt somuia somnos 

Et turbant animum fcristio mull a tuum 
lllic tabifici generantar seminu morbi 

Qui pote torpentem posse yalere virum 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



63 



Surge age surge, leves jam conveaiit, excute somnos 
Lux oritur, tepidi fulcra reliucpoe tori 

Ignauus satrapana cledeeet inelytum v 
Somnus qui poptolo miiltifido prreest. 
Duui Dauni veteris filius armiger 

Stratus purpurea p . . . buit , 

Audax Eurialus Warn et impiger 
Invasere cati ne«e|e sub horrid a 
Torpentes Rutilos castraque Volscia 
Hinc csedes oritur clamor et absonus 

In the first and nineteenth lines the word excaie has been substituted for arcere, 
which word seems originally to have ended the first line. In the fifteenth line the 
word somnum has been altered to somnos. In the twenty-fourth line portions of the 
paper (which is very much decayed) are torn away., and the verse is necessarily now 
imperfect. 



64 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



LIST OF AUTHORS CITED BY MILTON IN THE 
COMMONPLACE BOOK. 3 



Arsgelo di Costanzo. Hist, di 

Xapoli, 5,24$ 
Ariosto, 151 

Arlstoteles. Bhet (59,) (204) 
. ... . Eth. 162 
Ascham (Koger), 245 
Athemeus, 249 
Augustinus de Civ. Dei, 195 

Bacon (Sir Francis), 184 
Basil. 55, 57, 165 
Bed*; 57, 181 

Bemi, Orlando Inamorato,(71 ,)(187) ' 
Boccacio (in vita Dantis), 182 
feoccalini, (187,) 189, (197,) (201,) 

(203,) (205) 
Bodinus (de Republica), (20,) 112, 

(167,) (189, 195, 199, 200,202, 

248) 

Boiardo, (77,) (187) 

Bracton (Hen. de), Liber de legg. 

et consuetudd. Anglia?, (78, 1S6, 

195) 

Buchanan (Geo.), Hist, of Scotland. 
198 

Ca-sar, 20 

Camden (W m ), History of Elizabeth, 
6, 109, 177, 181, 186, 188, 220, \ 
242. 245 

1 The numbers in parentheses ref( 



Campian, 74 

Cantacuzenus, 240 

Cedren (? Geo. Cedreni compendium 

historiarum), 109 
Chaucer (Geoffrey), Canterbury 

Tales, 109, 111, 150, 191 
Chrysostom (John). 151 
Clemens Alexandrinus, 71, 10C, 109 
Codinus, 181 

Comines (Philip de), Memoires (ed. 
Gall. Paris), 53, 67, 110, 165, 
220 

Cuspinian, 151, 161, 166, 190, 193 
Cyprian, 109, 110, 241 

Daniell (on Dante), 160 

Dante, 12, 16, 70, 11], 160, 182, 

191,(197) 
Be L' Hospital, 177 
Doctor and Student, (79, 60, 81, 

82) 

Du Chesne, 109, 220 

Eusebius, 53, 55, 105, 109, 177, 
181 

Evagrius, 220 

Flor. Hist. (Flores Historiarum), 15 
Froutmus, 19 

- to entries not by Milton's hand. 



OF JOHN 

Grldas, 114, 195 
Gilles (Hist, des Vaudois), 53 
Girard (B.) Hist, de Franco, 53, 61, 
109, 110, 112, 183, 185, 186, 191 
Gower (Tho.), 243 
Guicciardini, 182, 190 
Guillim, 191 
Gregorius, Nyss., 109 

HaiHan (Hist, de la France), 182 
Hardyng, 242 

Hayward (Life of Ed. VI.), 245 

Henry of Huntingdon, 109 

Historia Miscella, 181 

Holinshed (Ralph), 17, 19, 72,74, 
109, 110, 178, 179, 181, 182, 
183, 184, 185, 186, 220, 221, 
242, 243, 244 

Ignatius, 109 

Joyius (Paulus), 13, 181, 220, 242, 
247 (Hist, sui temporis, fol. 1578) 

Justinian: The Institutes, 113, 179, 
182, 190 

Justin Martyr, 109, 182 

Jus Grajco - Romanum (see Leun- 
clavius), 109, 112 

Lactantius, 4, 5, 14, 18, 178, 241 
Lambard, ( W m ), Archeionomia, 179, 
183 

Leo Afer (ed. Lugd.), 57 
Leunclavius, (Jo) (Juris Gnvco- 

Romani tarn canonici quam civilis 

feomi duo. fol. Franofort, 1590), 

109, 112, 182 

CAM I). SOC, 



MILTON. G5 

Lilio, Gregorio Giraldo, 189 
Lncanus; Pliarsalia, 199 

Machiavelli (Nic.), Arte di guerra, 
177, 182. Discorsi, (146,) (185,) 
(195,) (197,) (198,) (242,) (243,) 
(245,) (246) 

Malmesbury (William of), 14, 53, 
72, 184, 185 

Matthseus Monachus, 112 

Matthew Paris, 109 

Martyr, Peter, 185 

Moryson (Fynes), (58) 

Nicephorus Grcgoras, 181,220,240. 
NicetasChomates,fol.ed. Paris, (249) 

Ovid's Metamorphoses, (249) 

Plautus, (249) 
Procopius, 151 , 230 
Prudcntius, 191 
Purchas (Samuel), 13, 57 

Raleigh (Sir W.), Hist.of the World, 
114 

Rivetus, 160, 188 

Savanarola, 179 
Schichard, 186 
Sclden (John) 109, 110 
Sessel (Claude), 186, 242 
Sidney (Sir P.), Arcadia, 16, 17. 
187, 188 

Sigonius, (19, 181,) 182, 183,220, 

210 (fol. Franc!'. 1591 ) 
Sinibaldus, 116 
K 



66 A COMMONF] 

Sicidan, 18, 55, 76, 181, 185, 243, 

244, 246 j 
Smith (Sir Tho:), 182, 185 
Socrates, 53, 55, 61, 109, 111, 151, 
181 

Sozomen, 109 

Speed's Chronicle, 53, 72, 74, 109, 

1 GO, 179, 180, 183, 185, 186, 187, 1 

220, 221, 242, 245 
Spenser (Edm.), 188, 242 
Stow (John), 15, 57, 72, 109, 179, 

180, 181, 184, 185, 220, 242 

(Annals, fol. Loud. 1613) 
Sulpicins Seyerus, 150, 182 

Tasso (Torq.) } (71) 



-ACE BOOK 
Tassoni, 189 

Tertulliau (ed. Rigalt.), 4, 13, 181, 
241 

Theodoritus, 53, 243 
Theophrastus, 20 

Thomasinus (Life of Petrarch), 189 
Thuanus (t. e. Be Thou), 14, 17, 53, 

110,112,114,115,177,182,183, 

184, 185, 186, 188, 244 (5 vols. 

fol. 1620) 
Trident, Hist, Ooncii. ed. Loud., 109, 

1 12, 179, 184, 189, 244 

Villani (Gian.), 12 
Yirgilius; JEneid., (249) 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



67 



■References to some Places in Milton's Works where he 
has utilised entries in the commonplace book. 



[i.] p. 13. The people saith Malnisbury learned of the Danes 

drunk'ness. Hist, of Brit., Edgar, p. 512. Hardee mite .... while 
he was drinking fell down speechless, and so dying, &c. He was it 
seems a great lover of good cheer, sitting at table four times a day. 
Hist, of Brit , Hardecnnte, p. 553. 

[ii.] p, 53. See The likeliest means to remove hirelings out of the 
Church, p. 433. 

[iii.] p. 58. " That notorious ribald of Arezzo . . . ". whom Henry VIII. 

named in merriment his Yicar of Hell." Speech for the liberty of 

unlicensed printing, p. 108. 
[iv.] p. 72. Edwin .... by the due administration of Justice wrought 

such peace over all his territories, that from sea to sea man or woman. 

might have travelled in safety. Hist, of Brit. p. 519. 
[v.] p. 72. Thieves and robbers he (Edgar) rooted almost out of the 

land. Hist, of Brit. p. 5-12. 
[vi ] p. 73. Milton tells this story at length in the Hist, of Brit. p. 539. 
[vii.] p. 74. Hist, of Brit, p. 5-12. 
[viii.] p. 75. Hist, of Brit. p. 552. 

[ix.] p. 76*. After mentioning Luther being cited before Charles V. i<> 
answer for his books and refusing to retract, as told by Sleidan, and 
commending Luther's righteous anger, Milton says "that the spirit of 
God .... when he would reprove any fault severely .... abstains not 
from some words not civil at other times to be spoken." And a little 
further on " indignation against men and their actions notoriously bad. 
hath leave and authority ofttinics to utter such words and phrases, - 
in common talk were not so mannerly to use." Apology for Sniectym- 
rmns, p. 84. 

[ixa]. p. 109. Reformation in England, p. 8. 

[x.] p. 112. The Popes of Borne perceiving the great revenue and high 
authority it would give them even over princes to have the judging and 
deciding of such a main consequence in the life of man as divorce; 
wrought so, &c by which means they subjected that ancient an I 



68 



A COMMONPLACE BOOK 



[x.] p. 112. The Popes of Rome perceiving the great revenue and high 
authority it would give them even over princes to have the judging and 
deciding of such a main consequence in the life of man as was divorce ; 
wrought so, &c. .... by which means they subjected that ancient and 
naturally domestic prerogative to an external and unbefitting judicature. 
Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. Cap. 21. 

[xi.] p. 112. These references are worked up in "Exposition in the 
four chief places in Scripture which treat of nullities in Marriage," 
f. 210. See also Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, cap. 8, f. 132. 

[xii.] p. 116. See " Exposition on the four chief places," &c p. 185. 

[xiii.] p. 1 50. See The likeliest means to remove Hirelings out of the 
Church, p. 434. 

[xiv.] p. 179. For a remark against Law French, see On Education, 
p. 99. 

[xv.] p. 179. He (OfTa) granted, saith Huntingdon, a perpetual tribute 
to the Pope out of every house in his kingdom for yielding perhaps to 
translate the primacy of Canterbury to Litchfield in his own dominions. 
Hist, of Engl, book 4, p. 527. 

[xvi.] p. 179. See The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, p. 233. 

[xvii.] p. 180. Hist, of Brit. p. 555. 

[xviii.] p. 182. Observations upon the Articles of Peace, p. 263. 

[xix.] p. 185. See The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, 237. 

[xx.] p. 185. This passage from Sir Thomas Smith is quoted in The 

Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, p. 237. 
[xxi.] p. 185. Ibid. p. 237. 

[xxii.] p. 185. Ibid. p. 238. But here Milton cites De Thou instead 
of Buchanan. 

[xxiii.] p. 185. And the Commons requested to have judgment decreed 

against him, that the realm might not be endangered. Ibid. p. 237. 
[xxiv.] p. 185. Ibid. p. 237. 

[xxv.] p. 185. Observations on the Articles of Peace, p. 265. 
[xxvi.] p. 186. The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, p. 233. 
[xxvii.] p. 188. Ibid. p. 238, citing Buchanan, 
[xxviii.] p. 189. Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, cap. 5, p. 141. 
[xxix.] p. 191. Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, p. 237. 
[xxx.] p. 195. Id. p. 237. 



OF JOHN MILTON. 



09 



xxxi. ] p. 220. Hist, of Brit. p. 553. 

xxxii. ] p. 220 Ibid. p. 551. 

xxxiii. ] p. 242. Ibid. p. 541. 

xxxiv. ] p. 244. Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, .p. 238. 

xxxv. ] p. 244. Answer to Eu-w^ Baa-iXuti?, p. 305. 

xxxvi. ] p. 246. Ibid.